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Scott R. Swanson, Tom Colwell and Yushan Zhao

Disability sports organizations could benefit from a better understanding of the factors leading individuals with disabilities to participate in sport. This study explored relationships among four sources of motivation (i.e., escape, self-esteem enhancement, self-improvement, and social interaction) and six forms of social support (i.e., emotional challenge, emotional support, listening support, reality confirmation, task appreciation, and task challenge) among 133 male and 60 female wheelchair athletes, ages 13–34 years. Differences in motivation and social support needs were examined according to athletes’ gender, age, playing level, skill level, years of participation, and future playing intentions. Results indicated that males were more motivated than females were by desire for escape and that long-term participants were more motivated than novices were by self-esteem enhancement. Escape, self-improvement, and social interaction were stronger motivators for high school athletes than for collegiate athletes. Importance of social support types differed according to skill level, playing level, years played, and future playing intentions.

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J.D. DeFreese, Travis E. Dorsch and Travis A. Flitton

interactions (e.g.,  Goodger, Gorely, Lavallee, & Harwood, 2007 ; DeFreese & Smith, 2014 ). In contrast, sport-based engagement has been shown to be positively associated with more optimal constellations of psychosocial outcomes (e.g.,  DeFreese & Smith, 2013a ). Cumulatively, more adaptive social

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Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Louise Davis and Henrik Gustafsson

will naturally empathize with their teammates and reflect commonly held team-based beliefs ( Shearer, Holmes, & Mellalieu, 2009 ). Athletes’ social interactions can influence how they cope with the physical and mental demands of participating in sport ( Gustafsson et al., 2011 ; Smith, 1986 ; Udry

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Shelby Waldron, J.D. DeFreese, Brian Pietrosimone, Johna Register-Mihalik and Nikki Barczak

of environmental factors (e.g., coach/parent pressure, limited social interaction, and decreased deliberate play) on athlete’s perceptions of autonomy (feelings of personal choice and control), competence (feelings of effectiveness within one’s environment), and relatedness (feelings of belonging and

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Trisha Patel and Neeru Jayanthi

to other adults…[because he] learn[ed] the courtesy of golf and the good behavior of golf”. These quotations highlight the positive social interactions that sports provide for children, not only amongst their peers but also amongst coaches, family, and other members of the athletic community. On the

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Sheryl Miller and Mary Fry

effort and improvement and where positive affirming social interactions with instructors and classmates occur. As noted and hypothesized, the relationship between climate to BE and SPA was similar across gender. Results for females were nearly identical to those for the total sample. The results for

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Victoria McGee and J.D. DeFreese

innovative applied future research direction, athletes could be trained on specific behavioral and/or communication strategies designed to initiate positive social interactions with their coaches. The study was limited by a relatively small sample size, with attrition across study waves, as well as a fairly

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Brian J. Foster and Graig M. Chow

.2.133 DeFreese , J.D. , & Smith , A.L. ( 2014 ). Athlete social support, negative social interactions, and psychological health across a competitive sport season . Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 36 ( 6 ), 619 – 630 . PubMed ID: 25602144 doi:10.1123/jsep.2014-0040 Dunn , J.G.H. , Bouffard , M

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Alessandro Quartiroli, Edward F. Etzel, Sharon M. Knight and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek

consultants. Findings related to sport psychology professional quality of life identified in the current study integrates, confirms, and extends the recommendations by Waumsley et al. ( 2010 ). The importance attributed to positive social interactions as well as the need for developing and nurturing trusting