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Dawn Anderson-Butcher

development in individual youth because of the relationships among life- and/or social-skills development, academic achievement, mental health, well-being, prosocial behaviors, and other positive youth outcomes ( Catalano et al., 2002 ; Ross & Tolan, 2018 ). The design of youth sport to incorporate PYD and

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Daniel Gould

initiative; cognitive/intellectual benefits such as enhanced working memory, improved attention, and better grades; and social benefits like opportunities to form relationships with adults, enhance peer relationships, and learn social skills ( American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and

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Brennan Petersen, Mark Eys, Kody Watson and M. Blair Evans

distinctions among peer experiences for youth. Rubin, Bukowski, and Parker ( 2006 ) highlighted four levels of social complexity: individuals (i.e., reflected in relatively stable characteristics that contribute to social skills), interactions (i.e., social exchanges between two individuals), relationships (i

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Jeffrey J. Martin

. Such findings highlight the importance of the environment and where adults need to be vigilant in watching for teasing and bullying behaviors. Finally, victims of bullies also tend to be emotionally reactive, to lack strong social skills, and to internalize their problems ( O’Brennan, Bradshaw

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Alan L. Smith and Daniel Gould

, health, and well-being, and social influence, respectively. It is important to state, however, that these organizational groupings are not mutually exclusive. Matters surrounding sport as a context for development of motivation, performance, and social skills, for example, are salient to health and well

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George B. Cunningham, Erin Buzuvis and Chris Mosier

and adolescents spend most of their time in schools, these schools play an important role in individuals’ well-being and development of peer relationships ( Wentzel & Caldwell, 1997 ). As Morrow ( 2004 ) commented, schools represent “the primary social setting in which friends are made, social skills

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Stewart A. Vella

social skills and social functioning ( Eime et al., 2013 ). Early sport participation from ages 4–5 years may also promote more-positive trajectories of a child’s parent-reported quality of life up to 13 years of age ( Vella, Magee, & Cliff, 2015 ). As such, sport participation appears to be correlated

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Christopher R. Hill, Deborah L. Feltz, Stephen Samendinger and Karin A. Pfeiffer

period marked by significant social-psychological and physiologic developmental milestones, suggests that age is one such variable to include in this analysis. Age in childhood and adolescence is associated with development of cognitive processes, motor skills, language, social skills, and emotional