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Lauren A. Gardner, Christopher A. Magee and Stewart A. Vella

. Correlates of youth sport attrition: a review and future directions . Psychol Sport Exerc. 2014 ; 15 : 429 – 439 . doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.04.003 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.04.003 4. Vella SA , Cliff DP , Magee CA , Okely AD . Sports participation and parent-reported health

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Amanda J. Visek, Sara M. Achrati, Heather M. Mannix, Karen McDonnell, Brandonn S. Harris and Loretta DiPietro


Children cite “fun” as the primary reason for participation in organized sport and its absence as the number-one reason for youth sport attrition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework of fun using a novel mixed-method assessment of participants in sport (FUN MAPS) via concept mapping.


Youth soccer players (n = 142), coaches (n = 37), and parents (n = 57) were stratified by age, sex, and competition level and contributed their ideas through (a) qualitative brainstorming, identifying all of the things that make playing sports fun for players; (b) sorting of ideas; and (c) rating each idea on its importance, frequency, and feasibility.


The FUN MAPS identify the 4 fundamental tenets of fun in youth sport within 11 fun-dimensions composed of 81 specific fun-determinants, while also establishing the youth sport ethos.


The FUN MAPS provide pictorial evidence-based blueprints for the fun integration theory (FIT), which is a multitheoretical, multidimensional, and stakeholder derived framework that can be used to maximize fun for children and adolescents to promote and sustain an active and healthy lifestyle through sport.

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Shelby Waldron, J.D. DeFreese, Brian Pietrosimone, Johna Register-Mihalik and Nikki Barczak

Sport specialization has been linked to multiple negative health related outcomes including increased injury risk and sport attrition, yet a gap remains in our understanding of potential psychological outcomes of early specialization (≤ age 12). The current study evaluated the associations between retrospective athlete reports of sport specialization and both retroactive and current psychological health outcomes. Early specializers reported significantly higher levels of multiple maladaptive psychological outcomes (e.g., global athlete burnout, emotional and physical exhaustion, sport devaluation, amotivation). Overall, findings suggest that specialization environment factors, in addition to the age of specialization, are potentially critical factors in determining health and well-being outcomes. Findings support prominent position statements suggesting early specialization may be associated with increased health risks. Study findings may also inform the development of guidelines and recommendations to aid parents, coaches, and athletes in positively impacting athlete psychosocial outcomes.

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Gretchen Kerr, Anthony Battaglia and Ashley Stirling

. Retrieved from Barnett , N.P. , Smoll , F.L. , & Smith , R.E. ( 1992 ). Effects of enhancing coach–athlete relationships on youth sport attrition . The Sport Psychologist, 6 , 111 – 127

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Stewart A. Vella

ID: 30475137 doi:10.1123/jpah.2018-0472 10.1123/jpah.2018-0472 Balish , S.M. , McLaren , C. , Rainhaim , D. , & Blanchard , C. ( 2014 ). Correlates of youth sport attrition: A review and future directions . Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15 , 429 – 439 . doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014

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Erin K. Howie, Justin M. Guagliano, Karen Milton, Stewart A. Vella, Sjaan R. Gomersall, Tracy L. Kolbe-Alexander, Justin Richards and Russell R. Pate

-2016-096933 32. Balish SM , McLaren C , Rainhaim D , Blanchard C . Correlates of youth sport attrition: a review and future directions . Psychol Sport Exerc . 2014 ; 15 ( 4 ): 429 – 439 . doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.04.003 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.04.003 33. Crane J , Temple V

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Michael J. Panza, Scott Graupensperger, Jennifer P. Agans, Isabelle Doré, Stewart A. Vella and Michael Blair Evans

013e3181b33659 Balish , S.M. , McLaren , C. , Rainham , D. , & Blanchard , C. ( 2014 ). Correlates of youth sport attrition: A review and future directions . Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 429 – 439 . doi:10.1016/j