This study is an examination of the identity formation of lesbians in sport and how lesbians interpreted the softball environment with regard to social support and the ability to be open about their lesbianism. Twenty four women on summer slow pitch softball teams, and 5 spectators, participated in qualitative interviews. Responses were consistent with a model of lesbian identity formation that included preconformist, conformist, post-conformist, lesbian conformist, and lesbian post-conformist levels. The support these women received from softball players helped them to come out to others and to enter the lesbian community.
Brenda A. Riemer
Holly Thorpe, Julie Brice and Anna Rolleston
far from ideal, would hopefully be a step towards raising critical questions about the importance of recognizing the nuanced relationship between culture and ethnicity in high performance sport environments. Rather than overlooking the sub-set of data that emerged organically from our interviews, we
Nicole Johnson, Katie Hanna, Julie Novak and Angelo P. Giardino
. This paper provides context on the issue of abuse in sport, outlining the incidence rates of sexual violence and important policy and education research specific to the sport environment. This paper introduces the Center and its efforts to create a safe environment for all sport participants. Estimates
Edited by Vikki Krane
I titled this special issue “Sexualities, Culture, and Sport” to stimulate reflection on important issues inherent in the culture of women’s sport. Sport has the opportunity to provide many positive benefits for women, such as personal and physical empowerment (Blinde, Taub, & Han, 1994; Krane & Romont, 1997; Theberge, 1987); in sport a woman can challenge herself, push her physical limits, and achieve new goals. Concerns related to sexuality however can interfere with the attainment of these benefits. On one hand, stereotypes about athletic females and concerns about femininity linger over women’s sport. Yet, there also is a shroud of silence concerning sexuality (Griffin, 1992; Sparkes, 1996). As a whole, women’s sport is not accepting of diverse sexualities (e.g., lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered individuals). This lack of acceptance has created an oppressive sport environment for all participants. A primary goal of this special issue is to bring to light some of the issues related to female sexuality, which are magnified by the heteropatriarchial American culture and are widespread in women’s sport.
Christopher L. Stevenson
This investigation examined the ways in which, and the rationalizations with which, certain elite athletes juxtaposed the two role-identities of “Christian” and “athlete.” The data were obtained through in-depth interviews with current and former college and professional athletes associated with the Athletes-in-Action (AIA) organization in Western Canada (N=31: 23 males, 8 females). Initial analysis indicated considerable variability in the types of behavior that the athletes, as Christians, saw as acceptable in their sport environments, and yet the majority of these Christian-athletes did not appear to perceive any values-conflict between their Christian faith and their sporting practices. A more detailed examination using both a developmental and an interactionist perspective identified three more or less distinct types of accommodation to the normative expectations associated with the two role-identities (the segregated, selective, and committed types), each of which was associated with different consequences for the athletes’ own behaviors in sport, the values and attitudes they expressed, and the kinds of behaviors they perceived to be acceptable for Christian-athletes.
Bryan E. Denham
Drawing on data gathered from high-school seniors in the 2008 Monitoring the Future Study of American Youth (N = 2,063), this research examined the explanatory effects of competitive sports participation on alcohol consumption and marijuana use using race and noncompetitive exercise frequency as controls. Among males, competitive sports included baseball, basketball, football, soccer, track and field, and weightlifting, and among females, sports included softball, basketball, soccer, swimming and diving, track and field, and volleyball. White males reported greater alcohol consumption than Black and Hispanic respondents, with competitors in baseball, football and weightlifting consuming alcohol more frequently. The use of marijuana did not depend on race, but baseball players and weightlifters reported significantly more use. Among females, race differences did not emerge in ordinal regression models testing effects on alcohol consumption, but participants in every sport reported drinking alcohol more frequently. White female athletes also appeared to smoke marijuana more frequently. Overall, results suggested comparably strong effects for female sport environments while male behaviors varied by race, noncompetitive exercise frequency, and sports competition. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are offered.
John N. Carr
This study aims to address how, to what extent, and under what conditions may those who are not cisgendered as male do the work of negotiating access to male sporting space. In doing so, it brings together critical geographies of masculinity and the critical literature on skateboarding to address the role of particular kinds of skateboarding spaces in either reproducing or potentially disrupting gender segregated, patriarchal skateboarding cultures. This project is offered not only to challenge patriarchal practices and values, but also to step beyond theory and actually examine how sport environments might be designed and sited so as to enable a wider range of gender performances and more inclusive spaces. Specifically, my research suggests that certain types of skate environments can somewhat lower women’s barriers to entering the gender charged realm of skateboarding if and when those responsible for those spaces take patriarchy and the needs of noncisgendered male skateboarders seriously.
Cette étude a pour but de savoir comment, dans quelle mesure et dans quelles conditions, les personnes n’étant pas des hommes cisgenres négocient leur accès dans l’univers sportif masculin. Pour ce faire, elle réunit les géographies critiques de la masculinité et la littérature critique sur le skateboard pour examiner le rôle de certains univers particuliers de cette pratique dans la reproduction, ou dans l’éventuelle rupture avec la ségrégation genrée, des cultures patriarcales du skateboard. Le but de ce projet n’est pas seulement de contester les pratiques et les valeurs patriarcales, mais aussi de dépasser la théorie et d’examiner vraiment comment les environnements sportifs pourrait être conçus et localisés de manière à permettre une plus grande variété de performances en fonction du genre et de devenir des espaces plus inclusifs. Plus spécifiquement, ma recherche suggère que certains types d’environnements dédiés à la glisse pourraient contribuer à réduire les barrières que rencontrent les femmes pour entrer dans la sphère fortement genrée du skateboard si et quand les responsables de ces espaces prendront sérieusement en compte le patriarcat et les besoins des skatebordeurs qui ne sont pas cisgenres.
George B. Cunningham
In this paper, from the Dr. Earle F. Zeigler Award Lecture presented in Austin, Texas, the author proposes that all persons have an obligation to ensure sport is inclusive and socially just. Works from a variety of disciplines, including religion, sociology, and social psychology, support the thesis. The author calls for collective action among sport management academicians, coalesced around teaching, research, and service to promote change. The final sections address potential counter narratives and provide an overview of the outcomes associated with an inclusive and socially just sport environment.
Gretchen Kerr, Erin Willson and Ashley Stirling
, but after being removed from the sport environment, these same behaviors were relabeled as abusive and harmful. Moreover, harmful coaching behaviors impacted athletes during the retirement process. Athletes who experienced emotional harm reported increased difficulties in their transition because they
Lori A. Gano-Overway
educate and advocate for change to reduce abuse in sport. The articles in the Special Section provide insight into harassment and abuse experienced by girls and women in sport. However, as the authors note, there is a need for future research and policy development to provide a safe sport environment for