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Caroline Westwood, Carolyn Killelea, Mallory Faherty and Timothy Sell

Context: Concussions are consequence of sports participation. Recent reports indicate there is an increased risk of lower-extremity musculoskeletal injury when returning to sport after concussion suggesting that achieving “normal” balance may not fully indicate the athlete is ready for competition. The increased risk of injury may indicate the need to refine a screening tool for clearance. Objective: Assess the between-session reliability and the effects of adding a cognitive task to static and dynamic postural stability testing in a healthy population. Setting: Clinical laboratory. Participants: Twelve healthy subjects (6 women; age 22.3 [2.9] y, height 174.4 [7.5] cm, weight 70.1 [12.7] kg) participated in this study. Design: Subjects underwent static and dynamic postural stability testing with and without the addition of a cognitive task (Stroop test). Test battery was repeated 10 days later. Dynamic postural stability testing consisted of a forward jump over a hurdle with a 1-legged landing. A stability index was calculated. Static postural stability was also assessed with and without the cognitive task during single-leg balance. Variability of each ground reaction force component was averaged. Main Outcome Measures: Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) were computed to determine the reliability. Standard error of measure, mean standard error, mean detectable change, and 95% confidence interval were all calculated. Results: Mean differences between sessions were low, with the majority of variables having moderate to excellent reliability (static .583–.877, dynamic .581–.939). The addition of the dual task did not have any significant effect on reliability of the task; however, generally, the ICC values improved (eyes open .583–.770, dual task .741–.808). Conclusions: The addition of a cognitive load to postural stability assessments had moderate to excellent reliability in a healthy population. These results provide initial evidence on the feasibility of dual-task postural stability testing when examining risk of lower-extremity musculoskeletal injury following return to sport in a concussed population.

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Glenn E. Cashman

Context:

It has been postulated that subjects with weak hip abductors and external rotators may demonstrate increased knee valgus, which may in turn raise risk of injury to the lower extremity. Recent studies have explored the potential link between hip strength and knee kinematics, but there has not yet been a review of this literature.

Objective:

To conduct a systematic review assessing the potential link between hip-abductor or external-rotator strength and knee-valgus kinematics during dynamic activities in asymptomatic subjects.

Evidence Acquisition:

An online computer search was conducted in early February 2011. Databases included Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were English language, asymptomatic subjects, dynamometric hip-strength assessment, single or multicamera kinematic analysis, and statistical analysis of the link between hip strength and knee valgus via correlations or tests of differences. Data were extracted concerning subject characteristics, study design, strength measures, kinematic measures, subject tasks, and findings with regard to correlations or group differences.

Evidence Synthesis:

Eleven studies were selected for review, 4 of which found evidence that subjects with weak hip abductors or external rotators demonstrated increased knee valgus, and 1 study found a correlation to the contrary.

Conclusions:

There is a small amount of evidence that healthy subjects with weak hip abductors and perhaps weak external rotators demonstrate increased knee valgus. However, due to the variation in methodology and lack of agreement between studies, it is not possible to make any definitive conclusions or clinical recommendations based on the results of this review. Further research is needed.

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Jessica Barrett, Alicia Pike and Stephanie Mazerolle

: A review of the literature . Skyline - The Big Sky Undergraduate Journal . 2013 ; 1 ( 1 ). 3. Graf C . Female athletic trainers in male professional sports . Sport Management Undergraduate . 2014 ; 51 . https://fisherpub.sjfc.edu/sport_undergrad/51 4. Mazerolle SM , Bruening JE , Casa

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Justine J. Reel and Emily Crouch

-4822(00)00041-3 Parent , S. , & Fortier , K. ( 2018 ). Comprehensive overview of the problem of violence against athletes in sport . Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 42 ( 4 ), 227 – 246 . doi:10.1177/0193723518759448 10.1177/0193723518759448 Taylor , E. , & Hardin , R. ( 2017 ). A gap in the sport

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Marja Kokkonen

homosexuality in intercollegiate sport . Journal of Applied Sport Management, 7 ( 4 ), 1 – 36 . doi:10.18666/JASM-2015-V7-I4-5298 10.18666/JASM-2015-V7-I4-5298 Bendixen , M. , Daveronis , J. , & Kennair , L.E.O. ( 2018 ). The effects of non-physical peer sexual harassment on high school students

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Stine Nylandsted Jensen, Andreas Ivarsson, Johan Fallby and Anne-Marie Elbe

). Measurement properties of the CESD scale among individuals with spinal cord injury . Spinal Cord, 46 , 287 – 292 . PubMed ID: 17909558 doi:10.1038/sj.sc.3102127 10.1038/sj.sc.3102127 Nowy , T. , & Breuer , C. ( 2017 ). Match-fixing in European grassroots football . European Sport Management

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Brian J. Foster and Graig M. Chow

Publications . Cantril , H. ( 1965 ). The pattern of human concerns . New Brunswick, NJ : Rutgers University Press . Chelladurai , P. , & Riemer , H.A. ( 1997 ). A classification of the facets of athlete satisfaction . Journal of Sport Management, 11 , 133 – 159 . doi: 10.1123/jsm.11

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Leonardo Ruiz, Judy L. Van Raalte, Thaddeus France and Al Petitpas

.1007/978-1-4614-3917-2_13 Bouchet , A. , Troilo , M. , & Welty Peachey , J. ( 2013 ). Major league baseball and the Dominican Republic: What is in the best interest of the players? Sport Management Review, 16 , 236 – 250 . doi: 10.1016/j.smr.2012.04.001 Brewer , B.W. , Petitpas , A.J. , & Van Raalte , J

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Brian A. Eiler, Rosemary Al-Kire, Patrick C. Doyle and Heidi A. Wayment

.R. , & Pennebaker , J.W. ( 2010 ). The psychological meaning of words: LIWC and computerized text analysis methods . Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 29 ( 1 ), 24 – 54 . doi:10.1177/0261927X09351676 10.1177/0261927X09351676 Taylor , E.A. , & Hardin , R. ( 2017 ). A gap in the sport management

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Tanya R. Prewitt-White

). A gap in the sport management curriculum: An analysis of sexual harassment and sexual assault education in the United States . Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 20 , 65 – 75 . doi:10.1016/j.jhlste.2017.04.004 10.1016/j.jhlste.2017.04.004 Toftegaard Nielsen , J. ( 2001