We applied the strength-energy model of self-control to understand the relationship between self-control and young athletes’ behavioral responses to taking illegal performance-enhancing substances, or “doping.” Measures of trait self-control, attitude and intention toward doping, intention toward, and adherence to, doping-avoidant behaviors, and the prevention of unintended doping behaviors were administered to 410 young Australian athletes. Participants also completed a “lollipop” decision-making protocol that simulated avoidance of unintended doping. Hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses revealed that self-control was negatively associated with doping attitude and intention, and positively associated with the intention and adherence to doping-avoidant behaviors, and refusal to take or eat the unfamiliar candy offered in the “lollipop” protocol. Consistent with the strength-energy model, athletes with low self-control were more likely to have heightened attitude and intention toward doping, and reduced intention, behavioral adherence, and awareness of doping avoidance.
Derwin K. C. Chan, Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner, James A. Dimmock, Robert J. Donovan, David A. Keatley, Sarah J. Hardcastle and Martin S. Hagger
Julio Cezar Q. Machado, Caroline M.O. Volpe, Leonardo S. Vasconcellos and José A. Nogueira-Machado
Background: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a glycoprotein released during early phases of a postischemic kidney in response to kidney injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress. It can be detected in urine after 2 hours of an ischemic event. The aim was to measure and to correlate the level of urine NGAL (uNGAL) with urea, creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of endurance cycling athletes (n = 19) and physically active individuals (control, n = 17). Methods: Quantification of urea and creatinine were performed by dry chemical method, and GFR was calculated using the modification of diet in renal disease formula, according to Brazilian Society of Nephrology. uNGAL analyses were performed by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay. Analyses were performed 48 hours after exercises. Results: uNGAL (in ng/mL) levels, expressed as median, minimum, and maximum, in cyclist group, 387.7 (109.7–1691.0), was significantly higher than that observed in control (physically active) group, 141.5 (4.8–657.0), (P < .05). No significant correlations were observed between uNGAL and creatinine, urea, or GFR (P > .05). Conclusions: Results have pointed to increased uNGAL levels in endurance cycling athletes. Increase of uNGAL in absence of clinical signs or alterations in creatinine, urea, or GFR might suggest that there is metabolic adaptation to endurance exercise, or possibly predisposition to acute kidney injury over time.
Rochelle Rocha Costa, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira, Leandro Coconcelli, Rafael de Lima Magalhães, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel
Background: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regressions evaluating the effects of isolated strength training (ST), compared with a control group, on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), C-reactive protein (CRP), and adiponectin of adults. Methods: Embase, PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus data sources were searched up to May 2017. Clinical trials that compared ST with a control group of adults older than 18 years, which evaluated blood TC, TG, LDL, HDL, CRP, or adiponectin as an outcome were included. Random effect was used and the effect size (ES) was calculated by using the standardized mean difference with a 95% confidence interval. Results: ST promotes a reduction in TC (ES: −0.399; P < .001), TG (ES: −0.204; P = .002), LDL (ES: −0.451; P < .001), and CRP (ES: −0.542; P = .01) levels. In addition, ST is associated to an increase in HDL (ES: 0.363; P < .001) and adiponectin concentrations (ES: 1.105; P = .01). Conclusion: ST promotes decreases in TC, TG, LDL, and CRP levels and increases HDL and adiponectin concentrations. Thus, progressive ST could be a potential therapeutic option for improving abnormalities in lipid and inflammatory outcomes in adults.
Laura S. Kox, P. Paul F.M. Kuijer, Dagmar A.J. Thijssen, Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs, Rick R. van Rijn, Monique H.W. Frings-Dresen and Mario Maas
Background: The benefits and risks of performing popular wrist-loading sports at a young age have not been investigated systematically. We aimed to evaluate positive and negative long-term wrist-related health effects of sports performance requiring repetitive wrist loading during youth. Methods: Six databases were searched for cohort and cross-sectional studies. Three investigators selected studies evaluating quantitatively measured health effects of upper extremities in athletes practicing wrist-loading sports (gymnastics, tennis, volleyball, field hockey, rowing, and judo) for minimally 4 months before the age of 18. Results: A total of 23 studies with 5 outcome measures, nearly all of moderate to good quality, were eligible for inclusion. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content were higher in athletes compared with controls and in tennis players’ dominant arm. Mixed results were found for ulnar variance in gymnasts. Handgrip strength was greater in tennis players’ dominant arm and in experienced gymnasts. Conclusions: Wrist-loading sports performance during youth can promote bone strength in wrists and dominant handgrip strength, but evidence on the lasting of these effects and on prevalence of wrist joint degeneration in former young athletes is limited. For better counseling of young athletes and their parents, future studies with increased comparability are essential, for which recommendations are provided.
Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Diarmuid Hurley and Montse C. Ruiz
This study documented the lived career-ending injury experiences among elite Irish rugby football union (IRFU) players. Three players took part in semistructured one-on-one interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, 1996) revealed that the process of psychosocial injury rehabilitation and the subsequent transition process was for the most part a distressing one and evolved in a cyclical, yet stage-like (Heil, 1994), manner. The nature of the postinjury career transition appeared to be dependent on the interactional balance of participants’ psychosocial responses to injury, existing coping mechanisms, and other factors related to the injury and career transition process. Appropriate social support network, use of sport medicine and counseling professionals, as well as organizational officials are needed to best prepare elite rugby players for life outside of sport, and to ensure a healthy career transition (Taylor & Ogilvie, 1994) out of sport.
Izzeldin Ibrahim, Eiman Al Hammadi, Suzan Sayegh, Lena Zimmo, Jwaher Al Neama, Husam Rezeq, Abdulla Saeed Al-Mohannadi and Al Anoud Al-Thani
Card Leadership (RCL) Team was established at Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sport Medicine Hospital, in collaboration with Stakeholder Group (SG) including members from well-established governmental and academic institutions in Qatar: Ministry of Public Health, Ministry of Education and Higher Education, and
Aysha M. Thomas, Kayleigh M. Beaudry, Kimbereley L. Gammage, Panagiota Klentrou and Andrea R. Josse
and published in the spring of 2016, indicated that only 38% of college and university students (41% of males and 37% of females) met the American College of Sport Medicine recommendations 5 for moderate-intensity (at least 30 min for 5 or more days per week) and vigorous-intensity exercise (at least
Alessandro Quartiroli, Sharon M. Knight, Edward F. Etzel and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek
( Gilmore et al., 2017 ; Wagstaff et al., 2015 ; Wagstaff, Gilmore, & Thelwell, 2016 ). In fact, they described SPPs as being the “most intangible discipline within sport medicine and science” ( Gilmore et al., 2017 , p. 5), leading SPPs to be among those likely to lose employment when organizational
David Geard, Peter R.J. Reaburn, Amanda L. Rebar and Rylee A. Dionigi
( 135 ) 1 – 14 . PubMed doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-13 Faulkner , J.A. , Davis , C.S. , Mendias , C.L. , & Brooks , S.V. ( 2008 ). The aging of elite male athletes: age-related changes in performance and skeletal muscle structure and function . Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 18 ( 6
Pak-Kwong Chung and Ka-Man Leung
explained to the potential participants. With their consent, they were asked to complete the short version of the PACES with the help of trained interviewers, including a research assistant and trained student helpers. The research assistant held a master’s degree in Sport Medicine and Health Science. All