We applied the strength-energy model of self-control to understand the relationship between self-control and young athletes’ behavioral responses to taking illegal performance-enhancing substances, or “doping.” Measures of trait self-control, attitude and intention toward doping, intention toward, and adherence to, doping-avoidant behaviors, and the prevention of unintended doping behaviors were administered to 410 young Australian athletes. Participants also completed a “lollipop” decision-making protocol that simulated avoidance of unintended doping. Hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses revealed that self-control was negatively associated with doping attitude and intention, and positively associated with the intention and adherence to doping-avoidant behaviors, and refusal to take or eat the unfamiliar candy offered in the “lollipop” protocol. Consistent with the strength-energy model, athletes with low self-control were more likely to have heightened attitude and intention toward doping, and reduced intention, behavioral adherence, and awareness of doping avoidance.
Derwin K. C. Chan, Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner, James A. Dimmock, Robert J. Donovan, David A. Keatley, Sarah J. Hardcastle and Martin S. Hagger
Billy T. Hulin, Tim J. Gabbett, Rich D. Johnston and David G. Jenkins
Purpose: To determine (1) how change-of-direction (COD) workloads influence PlayerLoad (PL) variables when controlling total distance covered and (2) relationships among collision workloads and PL variables during rugby league match play. Methods: Participants completed 3 protocols (crossover design) consisting of 10 repetitions of a 60-m effort in 15 s. The difference between protocols was the COD demands required to complete 1 repetition: no COD (straight line), 1° × 180° COD, or 3° × 180° COD. During rugby league matches, relationships among collision workloads, triaxial vector-magnitude PlayerLoad (PLVM), anteroposterior + mediolateral PL (PL2D), and PLVM accumulated at locomotor velocities below 2 m·s−1 (ie, PLSLOW) were examined using Pearson correlations (r) with coefficients of determination (R 2). Results: Comparing 3° × 180° COD to straight-line drills, PLVM·min−1 (d = 1.50 ± 0.49, large, likelihood = 100%, almost certainly), PL2D·min−1 (d = 1.38 ± 0.53, large, likelihood = 100%, almost certainly), and PLSLOW·min−1 (d = 1.69 ± 0.40, large, likelihood = 100%, almost certainly) were greater. Collisions per minute demonstrated a distinct (ie, R 2 < .50) relationship from PLVM·min−1 (R 2 = .30, r = .55) and PL2D·min−1 (R 2 = .37, r = .61). Total distance per minute demonstrated a very large relationship with PLVM·min−1 (R 2 = .62, r = .79) and PL2D·min−1 (R 2 = .57, r = .76). Conclusions: PL variables demonstrate (1) large increases as COD demands intensify, (2) separate relationships from collision workloads, and (3) moderate to very large relationships with total distance during match play. PL variables should be used with caution to measure collision workloads in team sport.
Daniel Martínez-Silván, Jaime Díaz-Ocejo and Andrew Murray
To analyze the influence of training exposure and the utility of self-report questionnaires on predicting overuse injuries in adolescent endurance athletes.
Five adolescent male endurance athletes (15.7 ± 1.4 y) from a full-time sports academy answered 2 questionnaires (Recovery Cue; RC-q and Oslo Sports Trauma Research questionnaire; OSTRC-q) on a weekly basis for 1 season (37 wk) to detect signs of overtraining and underrecovery (RC-q) and early symptoms of lower-limb injuries (OSTRC-q). All overuse injuries were retrospectively analyzed to detect which variations in the questionnaires in the weeks preceding injury were best associated. Overuse incidence rates were calculated based on training exposure.
Lower-limb overuse injuries accounted for 73% of total injuries. The incidence rate for overuse training-related injuries was 10 injuries/1000 h. Strong correlations were observed between individual running exposure and overuse injury incidence (r 2 = .66), number of overuse injuries (r 2 = .69), and days lost (r 2 = .66). A change of 20% or more in the RC-q score in the preceding week was associated with 67% of the lower-limb overuse injuries. Musculoskeletal symptoms were only detected in advance by the OSTRC-q in 27% of the episodes.
Training exposure (especially running exposure) was shown to be related to overuse injuries, suggesting that monitoring training load is a key factor for injury prevention. Worsening scores in the RC-q (but not the OSTRC) may be an indicator of overuse injury in adolescent endurance runners when used longitudinally.
Rafel Cirer-Sastre, Alejandro Legaz-Arrese, Francisco Corbi, Keith George, Jinlei Nie, Luis Enrique Carranza-García and Joaquim Reverter-Masià
Purpose: The authors evaluated the impact of acute exercise and 24-hour recovery on serum concentration of cardiac troponins T and I (cTnT and cTnI) and N-terminal fragment of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in healthy children and adolescents. The authors also determined the proportion of participants exceeding the upper reference limits and acute myocardial infarction cutoff for each assay. Method: Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and Scopus databases were systematically searched up to November 2017. Studies were screened and quality-assessed; the data was systematically extracted and analyzed. Results: From 751 studies initially identified, 14 met the inclusion criteria for data extraction. All 3 biomarkers were increased significantly after exercise. A decrease from postexercise to 24 hours was noted in cTnT and cTnI, although this decrease was only statistically significant for cTnT. The upper reference limit was exceeded by 76% of participants for cTnT, a 51% for cTnI, and a 13% for NT-proBNP. Furthermore, the cutoff value for acute myocardial infarction was exceeded by 39% for cTnT and a 11% for cTnI. Postexercise peak values of cTnT were associated with duration and intensity (Q (3) = 28.3, P < .001) while NT-proBNP peak values were associated with duration (Q (2) = 11.9, P = .003). Conclusion: Exercise results in the appearance of elevated levels of cTnT, cTnI, and NT-proBNP in children and adolescents. Postexercise elevations of cTnT and NT-proBNP are associated with exercise duration and intensity.
Julio Cezar Q. Machado, Caroline M.O. Volpe, Leonardo S. Vasconcellos and José A. Nogueira-Machado
Background: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a glycoprotein released during early phases of a postischemic kidney in response to kidney injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress. It can be detected in urine after 2 hours of an ischemic event. The aim was to measure and to correlate the level of urine NGAL (uNGAL) with urea, creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of endurance cycling athletes (n = 19) and physically active individuals (control, n = 17). Methods: Quantification of urea and creatinine were performed by dry chemical method, and GFR was calculated using the modification of diet in renal disease formula, according to Brazilian Society of Nephrology. uNGAL analyses were performed by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay. Analyses were performed 48 hours after exercises. Results: uNGAL (in ng/mL) levels, expressed as median, minimum, and maximum, in cyclist group, 387.7 (109.7–1691.0), was significantly higher than that observed in control (physically active) group, 141.5 (4.8–657.0), (P < .05). No significant correlations were observed between uNGAL and creatinine, urea, or GFR (P > .05). Conclusions: Results have pointed to increased uNGAL levels in endurance cycling athletes. Increase of uNGAL in absence of clinical signs or alterations in creatinine, urea, or GFR might suggest that there is metabolic adaptation to endurance exercise, or possibly predisposition to acute kidney injury over time.
Jeanne F. Nichols, Mitchell J. Rauh, Michelle T. Barrack, Hava-Shoshana Barkai and Yael Pernick
The authors’ purpose was to determine the prevalence and compare associations of disordered eating (DE) and menstrual irregularity (MI) among high school athletes. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and a menstrual-history questionnaire were administered to 423 athletes (15.7 ± 1.2 y, 61.2 ± 10.2 kg) categorized as lean build (LB; n = 146) or nonlean build (NLB; n = 277). Among all athletes, 20.0% met the criteria for DE and 20.1% for MI. Although the prevalence of MI was higher in LB (26.7%) than NLB (16.6%) athletes (P = 0.01), no differences were found for DE. For both sport types, oligo/amenorrheic athletes consistently reported higher EDE-Q scores than eumenorrheic athletes (P < 0.05). Athletes with DE were over 2 times as likely (OR = 2.3, 95%CI: 1.3, 4.2) to report oligo/amenorrhea than athletes without DE. These data establish an association between DE and MI among high school athletes and indicate that LB athletes have more MI but not DE than NLB athletes.
Gil Rodas, Lourdes Osaba, David Arteta, Ricard Pruna, Dolors Fernández and Alejandro Lucia
Purpose: The authors investigated the association between risk of tendinopathies and genetic markers in professional team sports. Methods: The authors studied 363 (mean [SD]; 25  y, 89% male) elite players (soccer, futsal, basketball, handball, and roller hockey) from a top-level European team (FC Barcelona, Spain). Of 363, 55% (cases) had experienced 1+ episodes of tendinopathy during 2008–2018 and 45% (controls) remained injury free. The authors first examined the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and tendinopathy risk in a hypothesis-free case-control genome-wide association study (495,837 SNPs) with additional target analysis of 58 SNPs that are potential candidates to influence tendinopathy risk based on the literature. Thereafter, the authors augmented the SNP set by performing synthetic variant imputation (1,419,369 SNPs) and then used machine learning-based multivariate modeling (support vector machine and random forest) to build a reliable predictive model. Results: Suggestive association (P < 10−5) was found for rs11154027 (gap junction alpha 1), rs4362400 (vesicle amine transport 1-like), and rs10263021 (contactin-associated protein-like 2). Carriage of 1+ variant alleles for rs11154027 (odds ratio = 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–4.19, P = 1.01 × 10−6) or rs4362400 (odds ratio = 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–3.73, P = 9.6 × 10−6) was associated with a higher risk of tendinopathy, whereas an opposite effect was found for rs10263021 (odds ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.20–0.91], P = 4.5 × 10−6). In the modeling approach, one of the most robust SNPs was rs10477683 in the fibrillin 2 gene encoding fibrillin 2, a component of connective tissue microfibrils involved in elastic fiber assembly. Conclusions : The authors have identified previously undescribed genetic predictors of tendinopathy in elite team sports athletes, notably rs11154027, rs4362400, and rs10263021.
Jeffrey M. Willardson, Fabio E. Fontana and Eadric Bressel
To compare core muscle activity during resistance exercises performed on stable ground vs. the BOSU Balance Trainer.
Twelve trained men performed the back squat, dead lift, overhead press, and curl lifts. The activity of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominis, transversus abdominis/internal oblique abdominis, and erector spinae muscles was assessed. Subjects performed each lift under three separate conditions including standing on stable ground with 50% of a 1-RM, standing on a BOSU Balance Trainer with 50% of a 1-RM, and standing on stable ground with 75% of a 1-RM.
Significant differences were noted between the stable 75% of 1-RM and BOSU 50% of 1-RM conditions for the rectus abdominis during the overhead press and transversus abdominis/internal oblique abdominis during the overhead press and curl (P < .05). Conversely, there were no significant differences between the stable 75% of 1-RM and BOSU 50% of 1-RM conditions for the external obliques and erector spinae across all lifts examined. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between the BOSU 50% of 1-RM and stable 50% of 1-RM conditions across all muscles and lifts examined.
The current study did not demonstrate any advantage in utilizing the BOSU Balance Trainer. Therefore, fitness trainers should be advised that each of the aforementioned lifts can be performed while standing on stable ground without losing the potential core muscle training benefits.
Laura S. Kox, P. Paul F.M. Kuijer, Dagmar A.J. Thijssen, Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs, Rick R. van Rijn, Monique H.W. Frings-Dresen and Mario Maas
Background: The benefits and risks of performing popular wrist-loading sports at a young age have not been investigated systematically. We aimed to evaluate positive and negative long-term wrist-related health effects of sports performance requiring repetitive wrist loading during youth. Methods: Six databases were searched for cohort and cross-sectional studies. Three investigators selected studies evaluating quantitatively measured health effects of upper extremities in athletes practicing wrist-loading sports (gymnastics, tennis, volleyball, field hockey, rowing, and judo) for minimally 4 months before the age of 18. Results: A total of 23 studies with 5 outcome measures, nearly all of moderate to good quality, were eligible for inclusion. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content were higher in athletes compared with controls and in tennis players’ dominant arm. Mixed results were found for ulnar variance in gymnasts. Handgrip strength was greater in tennis players’ dominant arm and in experienced gymnasts. Conclusions: Wrist-loading sports performance during youth can promote bone strength in wrists and dominant handgrip strength, but evidence on the lasting of these effects and on prevalence of wrist joint degeneration in former young athletes is limited. For better counseling of young athletes and their parents, future studies with increased comparability are essential, for which recommendations are provided.
Rochelle Rocha Costa, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira, Leandro Coconcelli, Rafael de Lima Magalhães, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel
Background: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regressions evaluating the effects of isolated strength training (ST), compared with a control group, on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), C-reactive protein (CRP), and adiponectin of adults. Methods: Embase, PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus data sources were searched up to May 2017. Clinical trials that compared ST with a control group of adults older than 18 years, which evaluated blood TC, TG, LDL, HDL, CRP, or adiponectin as an outcome were included. Random effect was used and the effect size (ES) was calculated by using the standardized mean difference with a 95% confidence interval. Results: ST promotes a reduction in TC (ES: −0.399; P < .001), TG (ES: −0.204; P = .002), LDL (ES: −0.451; P < .001), and CRP (ES: −0.542; P = .01) levels. In addition, ST is associated to an increase in HDL (ES: 0.363; P < .001) and adiponectin concentrations (ES: 1.105; P = .01). Conclusion: ST promotes decreases in TC, TG, LDL, and CRP levels and increases HDL and adiponectin concentrations. Thus, progressive ST could be a potential therapeutic option for improving abnormalities in lipid and inflammatory outcomes in adults.