Over the past decade, a growing number of scholars in sport psychology and sport sociology have begun forging inter- and transdiciplinary research lines that attempt to follow Ingham, Blissmer, and Wells Davidson’s (1998) call for a coming together of the sport sociological and sport psychological imaginations. This paper presents the results of a thematic analysis of the stories of five early-to midcareer academics who have lived at/through the boundaries of these two sub disciplines of Kinesiology. Following an introduction in which we attempt to situate the two subdisciplines within the larger field of Kinesiology, we present a thematic analysis of the five individual stories, and attempt to tie them to the politicized boundaries and related spaces of tensions faced by those wishing to do the kind of interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary work advocated recently by the emerging areas of cultural sport psychology (CSP) and physical cultural studies (PCS).
Ted M. Butryn, Nicole M. LaVoi, Kerri J. Kauer, Tamar Z. Semerjian and Jennifer J. Waldron
Robin S. Vealey
The provocative and dynamic interrelationships between the social organization of sport, sexual orientation of women participants, and their concomitant perceptions and behavior represent a fertile area for social psychological research. Sport psychologists have largely avoided, through scholarly discourse, examining lesbianism in sport thereby perpetuating “the silence so loud that it screams.” The purpose of this paper is to identify the harmful intellectual and social consequences of this silence and to advance suggestions for future research directions based on emerging epistemology and theory. It is argued that if the silence is broken using depoliticized functionalist approaches such as sex-role identification and liberal humanism, this will only exacerbate the homophobia and heterosexism that hinders our intellectual pursuit of knowledge in this area and reify the heteropatricarchal oppression of lesbians participating in sport. The rigid socially-constructed isomorphism between sport and masculinity coupled with the social stigma of lesbianism within sport may only be transformed via a paradigmatic shift from traditional functionalism toward a social constructionist approach.
Peter M. Hopsicker and Douglas Hochstetler
In this paper, we ethically examine the value of dichotomies to the endurance community or any sports community bifurcated by attitudes of superiority in one qualitative method of experiencing an activity over another—as Pearl Izumi's 2007 advertising campaign “We are not joggers” has done by dividing the bipedal ambulatory endurance community into “runners” and “joggers.” Using the writings of American pragmatists William James and John Dewey, we will describe the endurance sports community in terms of “unsympathetic characters” and “sympathetic characters.” We will then layer conceptions of the “static” self and the “dynamic” self on top of this dichotomy. The results of this examination will not support Pearl Izumi's dichotomy in “static” ways. However, if these perspectives are viewed as exemplifying a temporal measure of the “dynamic” self, as part of the endurance athletes' personal narratives, then actions and attitudes based on these dichotomies can be seen as part of meaningful personal and community growth as well as a potential source of virtue.
Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Andrew C. White, Hayley C. Russell and Aynsley M. Smith
The psychology of sport concussions consists of psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors that contribute to sport concussion risks, consequences, and outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to present a sport concussion-adapted version of the integrated model of psychological response to sport injury and rehabilitation (Wiese-Bjornstal, Smith, Shaffer, & Morrey, 1998) as a framework for understanding the roles of psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors in sport concussions. Elements of this model include preinjury psychological risk factors, postinjury psychological response and rehabilitation processes, and postinjury psychological care components. Mapped onto each element of this model are findings from the research literature through a narrative review process. An important caveat is that the subjective nature of concussion diagnoses presents limitations in these findings. Future research should examine psychological contributors to concussion risk, influences of physical factors on psychological symptoms and responses, and efficacy of psychological treatments utilizing theory-driven approaches.
Alan G. Ingham, Bryan J. Blissmer and Kristen Wells Davidson
This article offers a proposal for combining the sport sociological and sport psychological imaginations. In order to effect this rapprochement, some serious adjustments to the ways in which many applied sport psychologists and sport sociologists think about and conduct research are required. Thus, the initial part of this article expresses some critiques, albeit brief, of current tendencies within both sport sociology and sport psychology. We deemed these critiques necessary to advance a neo-Millsian position on the articulation of social structure and personality. This neo-Millsian position draws on the ego-psychoanalytical tradition to offer suggestions for how we might reconceive the problems of indispensability/expendability in the Prolympic structures of sport and for how we might, using a life-histories (biographical) methodology, engage in useful or practical research, especially on the problematics of how individuals handle/mishandle early, pre-career, and mid-career failure, and, in the long-run, inevitable failure at the end of their careers. Where, then, is the common ground between sport sociology and sport psychology? We argue that it is the analysis of ego-practices and ego-defenses as learned, consciously or unconsciously, over our biographical lives as they intersect with, and are contoured by, social history and social structure.
Jamie M. Fynes and Leslee A. Fisher
The purpose of this study was to explore the congruence of identity in 10 former U.S. NCAA Division I (DI) lesbian student-athletes using a semistructured personal identity interview guide (adapted from Fisher, 1993) and Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) (Hill, 2012; Hill, Knox, Thompson, Williams, Hess, & Ladany, 2005). Five domains, nineteen categories, and related core ideas were found in the transcribed interviews. The five domains were: (a) stereotypes and perceptions of female athletes; (b) stereotypes and perceptions of lesbians and lesbian athletes; (c) climate for LGBT athletes; (d) negotiating identities; and (e) recommendations for college campuses. The main goal of the current study was to determine whether lesbian athletes felt comfortable being who they are in the context of U.S. DI sport. Recommendations for how applied sport psychology consultants, coaches, and administrators, all of whom play an important role in athletes’ collegiate sport experience, could change the structure of U.S. universities to help lesbian student-athletes become more comfortable are given.
P. Stanley Brassie
In 1987 the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) appointed a task force to develop undergraduate and graduate curricular guidelines for institutions preparing sport management professionals. The undergraduate guidelines address the three components of a sport management curriculum: (a) the foundational areas of study comprising full courses in business management, marketing, economics, accounting, finance, and computer science; (b) the application areas of study composed of sport foundations (e.g., sport sociology, sport psychology, sport history /philosophy, women in sport), sport law, sport economics, sport marketing/promotion, and sport administration; and (c) the field experiences including practical and internships. The graduate guidelines build upon the undergraduate preparation and include (a) two required courses in research methods and a project or thesis; (b) advanced application electives in sport law, sport economics, sport marketing/promotion, sport administration, facility design, and event management; and (c) the field experiences of practical and internships.