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Eilidh H.R. Macrae

Voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) provide the primary opportunities for organized community sport in the UK and thus hold the responsibility for delivering on mega-event sports participation legacies. This study presents findings from open-ended questionnaires and interviews conducted in two phases (Phase 1—Spring, 2013; Phase 2—Summer, 2015) with representatives from a sample (n = 39) of VSCs to understand their ability to deliver on the participation legacy goals of London 2012 and the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow. Thematic analysis of the data outlined three themes where support for VSCs should be placed when planning future mega-events: building VSC capacity, retaining members in the long-term, and promoting general visibility of the VSC throughout the event. Bid teams who hope to use mega-events as catalysts for sports participation increases should direct funding and guidance toward VSCs to ensure they have the tools, knowledge, and capacity to deliver on national sports participation ambitions.

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Jamile S. Codogno, Henrique L. Monteiro, Bruna C. Turi-Lynch, Romulo A. Fernandes, Subhash Pokhrel and Nana Anokye

2008 ( Lee et al., 2012 ). Sports participation is one of the most relevant manifestations of physical exercise and is highly common during childhood and adolescence, but decreases in adulthood, and it gets even lower among older adults ( Eime et al., 2016 ). Also, sports participation is the major

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Michael Mutz and Marlena van Munster

calculated from the respective data set. 7 – 9 A few studies have already shown that cross-national variations in exercise and sports participation correlate with macro-social characteristics. Most frequently, a country’s wealth and economic development have been suggested as an influencing factor, 10 – 13

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Geraldine Naughton and John Carlson

The heart rate intensity during 20 minutes of sports participation by circumpubertal children was monitored several times over a season. The competitive games’ mean absolute heart rates for basketball, badminton, netball, and tennis were 170, 159, 168, and 162 bts·min−1 (or 72, 75, 69, and 67% of heart rate maximum), respectively. The mean abolute heart rates for 20 minutes of participation under practice conditions for badminton, basketball, netball, and tennis were 149, 157, 144, and 135 bts·min−1, or 73, 75, 69, and 67% of heart rate maximum. At the 0.05 level of probability there was a significant difference between the heart rate intensities under competitive game and practice situations in the badminton, netball, and tennis groups. The difference between intensities of competitive games and practices was nonsignificant in the basketball players. The study concluded that participation in practice and game conditions was positive in providing the potential for a training stimulus.

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Bryan E. Denham

means of heightening racial and ethnic consciousness. Scholars have examined associations between sports participation and attitudes toward race and ethnicity ( Chu & Griffey, 1985 ; Goldsmith, 2003 ), with some studies indicating that team sports, in particular, stand to influence individual attitudes

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Samantha M. Ross, Ellen Smit, Joonkoo Yun, Kathleen Bogart, Bridget Hatfield and Samuel W. Logan

socioeconomic status and child’s race/ethnicity remain significant predictors of PA participation after adjustment for disability type, 14 highlights a need to examine the interacting effects of age, gender, race, class, and disability on sports participation. However, PA research involving children with

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André F. Seabra, Denisa M. Mendonça, Martine A. Thomis, Robert M. Malina and José A. Maia

Background:

The present study considered age- and sex-associated variation in sports participation (SP) in Portuguese youth.

Method:

A national survey of 12,568 students, ages 10 to 18 y, was conducted. Two items of the Baecke et al. (1982) questionnaire that deal with SP were considered. Logistic regression and factorial ANOVA were used.

Results:

The prevalence of SP is greater in males than females. Mean sport scores increased in both sexes from ages 10 to 18 y. Soccer was the most practiced sport among males, while swimming and soccer were the most practiced sports among females. Males participated in SP >5 hours per week compared to 1 to 2 hours per week in females. High-intensity sports were more prevalent among males, while sports of mid-level intensity were more prevalent among females. The majority of youth participate in sport more than 9 months of the year.

Conclusion:

SP is an important component of physical activity among Portuguese youth and has a relatively stable prevalence between ages 10 to 18 y.

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Eva A. Jaarsma, Rienk Dekker, Steven A. Koopmans, Pieter U. Dijkstra and Jan H.B. Geertzen

We examined barriers to and facilitators of sports participation in people with visual impairments. Participants registered at Royal Visio, Bartiméus, and the Eye Association were invited to complete a questionnaire (telephone or online). Six hundred forty-eight of the invited participants (13%) completed the questionnaire, and 63% of the respondents reported sports participation. Walking (43%), fitness (34%), and cycling (34%) were frequently mentioned sports. Costs, lack of peers/buddies, and visual impairment were negatively associated with sports participation, whereas higher education and computer (software) use were positively associated. The most important personal barrier was visual impairment; transport was the most important environmental barrier. Active participants also mentioned dependence on others as a personal barrier. The most important personal facilitators were health, fun, and social contacts; support from family was the most important environmental facilitator. To improve sports participation in people with visual impairments, the emphasis in a sports program should be on the positive aspects of sports, such as fun, health, and social contacts.

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Matthew J. Taylor, Rachel A. Wamser, Michelle E. Sanchez and Charleanea M. Arellano

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of sports participation and race/ethnicity on violence and victimization among a sample of white, African American, and Hispanic rural-area high school girls. It was hypothesized that girls who participated in sports would report lower rates of violent behavior and fewer incidents of victimization. Using logistic regression and multivariate analysis of variance, evidence for the hypotheses was mixed and appeared to be related to the type of violence and victimization. Sports participants were less likely to engage in general violence and reported less physical and sexual victimization, but did not experience less intimate partner violence victimization. Conversely, sports participants were more likely to engage in verbal and physical reactive violence. While sports participation may have some preventative impact on violence and victimization, this relationship may also be influenced by community characteristics and not a universal outcome.

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Tamela McNulty Eitle and David J. Eitle

Recent research has explored the relationship between sports participation in high school and the sexual and reproductive behavior of females. Evidence has accumulated that playing sports is associated with a lowered risk of pregnancy among adolescents and positively associated with the use of contraceptives, but little evidence has been uncovered as to whether such associations endure into young adulthood. Using data from a representative community sample, we examined whether differences in high school sports participation has an association with the sexual and reproductive activities of young adult women after high school (n = 679). Results of multivariate analyses suggest that high school sports involvement is a predictor of the likelihood of childbirth outside of marriage and lifetime number of sex partners but is not a predictor of condom use during sex.