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Eilidh H.R. Macrae

Voluntary sports clubs (VSCs) provide the primary opportunities for organized community sport in the UK and thus hold the responsibility for delivering on mega-event sports participation legacies. This study presents findings from open-ended questionnaires and interviews conducted in two phases (Phase 1—Spring, 2013; Phase 2—Summer, 2015) with representatives from a sample (n = 39) of VSCs to understand their ability to deliver on the participation legacy goals of London 2012 and the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow. Thematic analysis of the data outlined three themes where support for VSCs should be placed when planning future mega-events: building VSC capacity, retaining members in the long-term, and promoting general visibility of the VSC throughout the event. Bid teams who hope to use mega-events as catalysts for sports participation increases should direct funding and guidance toward VSCs to ensure they have the tools, knowledge, and capacity to deliver on national sports participation ambitions.

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Dae Hee Kwak, Joon Sung Lee and Joseph E. Mahan III

Participation in fantasy sports has become one of the most popular forms of interactive online entertainment, attracting more than 32 million players in North America. The purpose of this study was to examine the biasing effects of an advertisement promoting the popular online service. Using the illusion of control theory as a framework, a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment (N = 156) was conducted to examine the effects of two marketer-controlled variables (i.e., customization level and expert information) on participants’ illusory judgments and their decisions to participate in the advertised service. The results showed that both manipulated features evoked biases in control perceptions. Furthermore, illusory control increases winning expectancy and increased winning expectancy leads to favorable attitude and decision toward the advertised product. Findings suggest that promotional information emphasizing control heuristics and expert knowledge can increase consumers’ beliefs that they can control their outcome, which subsequently influences their decision to participate.

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Brendan Dwyer, Joris Drayer and Stephen L. Shapiro

empirical research is needed to explore contemporary fantasy sports participation from a dispositional and attitudinal perspective. Theoretical Framework The decision to play DFS (a new activity) as opposed to TFS-only participation or any form of gambling for that matter does not occur in a vacuum. Several

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Chadron Hazelbaker and Matthew Martin

female, promotes leadership and teamwork skills that might not be honed outside of sports participation ( YouGov America, 2017 ). Opponents of Title IX, however, argue that while the overall participation numbers for males may be increasing, the opportunities for males playing certain sports are being

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Elizabeth A. Taylor, Gareth J. Jones, Kristy McCray and Robin Hardin

. ( 2017 ). Competitive sports participation in high school and subsequent substance use in young adulthood: Assessing differences based on level of contact . International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 52 ( 2 ), 240 – 259 . PubMed ID: 28344426 doi:10.1177/1012690215586998 10

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John A.W. Baker, Xiang-Jun Cao, David Wei Pan and Weili Lin

The effectiveness of the centralized sport system in China has been demonstrated by the achievements of athletes in international competition and the extent of mass sports participation; however, the efficiency of the system has been questioned. A government survey determined that administrators within the system came from diverse backgrounds with little or no training in sport, physical education, or management techniques. This situation is being remedied through workshops for existing administrators and 4-year degree programs for future administrators. This study provides information regarding the different perspectives of sport administration in China, the structure of the workshops and degree programs, and efforts being made to ensure that an already effective system becomes more efficient. All data were obtained from prime source materials and from surveys conducted by one of the authors.

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Mary Jo Kane

This study examined the impact of Title IX on media coverage given to female athletes to determine if there has been a shift away from negative social stereotypes traditionally associated with women’s sports participation toward a more socially accepting view of the female athlete. A content analysis of feature articles within 1,228 issues of Sports Illustrated was undertaken for the years 1964-1987. These represented three 8-year time spans before (1964-71), during (1972-79), and after (1980-87) Title IX. In order to assess whether attitudes have changed toward female athletes as related to a Title IX timeline, amount and type of coverage were considered. Chi-square analyses revealed mixed results. There was a significant increase in the proportion of coverage given to women in athletic (e.g., professional golfer) versus nonathletic (e.g., swimsuit model) roles. However, feature articles about female athletes gave significantly more coverage to women in "sex-appropriate" sports such as tennis versus "sex-inappropriate" sports such as rugby, regardless of the Title IX time frame. Results are discussed in terms of challenging current beliefs that women’s athletics have gained widespread social acceptance following the enactment of Tide IX. Implications for practitioners and academics within sport management are presented.

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Marijke Taks and Stefan Késenne

This study measures the share of the sports sector in the regional economy of Flanders by means of expenditure related to active sports participation and spectator sport. In contrast with the more common cost-benefit approach, the perspective of this study is rather macroeconomic. A representative sample of 512 households was interviewed by means of a standardized questionnaire. Data on government expenditure were gathered from an analysis of budgets and bills. Private investments and the balance of trade statistics were estimated. All these expenditures, $4.3 billion U.S., constitute the Gross Regional Sport Product for Flanders. During the past 15 years, household expenditure in sport has increased, while government expenditure has stagnated. However, government intervention remains necessary for setting up the legal context, financing the construction and maintenance of a rich variety of sports facilities, and for lowering the price threshold for low-income families. This study has shown the importance of the sports sector for the Flemish economy, mainly through household expenditure.

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Wonseok Jang, Yong Jae Ko, Daniel L. Wann and Daehwan Kim

(Series Ed.), Social Indicators Research Series: Assessing Well-Being: The Collected Works of Ed Diener (Vol. 39, pp. 213–231). doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-2354-4_1 . Downward , P. , & Rasciute , S. ( 2011 ). Does sport make you happy? An analysis of the well-being derived from sports participation

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Joshua Woods

.1111/j.1931-0846.2013.00003.x 10.1111/j.1931-0846.2013.00003.x Palacios-Ceña , D. , Fernandez-de-Las-Peñas , C. , Hernández-Barrera , V. , Jiménez-Garcia , R. , Alonso-Blanco , C. , & Carrasco-Garrido , P. ( 2012 ). Sports participation increased in Spain: A population-based time trend study