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Geraldine Naughton and John Carlson

The heart rate intensity during 20 minutes of sports participation by circumpubertal children was monitored several times over a season. The competitive games’ mean absolute heart rates for basketball, badminton, netball, and tennis were 170, 159, 168, and 162 bts·min−1 (or 72, 75, 69, and 67% of heart rate maximum), respectively. The mean abolute heart rates for 20 minutes of participation under practice conditions for badminton, basketball, netball, and tennis were 149, 157, 144, and 135 bts·min−1, or 73, 75, 69, and 67% of heart rate maximum. At the 0.05 level of probability there was a significant difference between the heart rate intensities under competitive game and practice situations in the badminton, netball, and tennis groups. The difference between intensities of competitive games and practices was nonsignificant in the basketball players. The study concluded that participation in practice and game conditions was positive in providing the potential for a training stimulus.

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André F. Seabra, Denisa M. Mendonça, Martine A. Thomis, Robert M. Malina and José A. Maia

Background:

The present study considered age- and sex-associated variation in sports participation (SP) in Portuguese youth.

Method:

A national survey of 12,568 students, ages 10 to 18 y, was conducted. Two items of the Baecke et al. (1982) questionnaire that deal with SP were considered. Logistic regression and factorial ANOVA were used.

Results:

The prevalence of SP is greater in males than females. Mean sport scores increased in both sexes from ages 10 to 18 y. Soccer was the most practiced sport among males, while swimming and soccer were the most practiced sports among females. Males participated in SP >5 hours per week compared to 1 to 2 hours per week in females. High-intensity sports were more prevalent among males, while sports of mid-level intensity were more prevalent among females. The majority of youth participate in sport more than 9 months of the year.

Conclusion:

SP is an important component of physical activity among Portuguese youth and has a relatively stable prevalence between ages 10 to 18 y.

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Michelle Hardie Murphy, David Anthony Rowe and Catherine B. Woods

Background:

The contribution of sports related factors to predicting long-term physical activity (PA) are unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine tracking of PA during key transition periods in youth and to determine the longitudinal associations between sports club participation and PA.

Methods:

Participants (n = 873, baseline age 10 to 18 years) completed self-report surveys in 2009 and 2014 that included the PACE+ PA tool and sports club participation questions. Spearman correlations assessed PA tracking. ANCOVA analyses examined predictors (sports participation at baseline) of PA (follow-up), adjusting for (a) age and sex; and (b) age, sex, and baseline PA.

Results:

Tracking of PA was weak-to-moderate (ρ = .16 to .47). Greater sports participation frequency at baseline significantly predicted PA at follow-up (P < .01). Involvement in club sports at an elite level had a medium-to-large effect on PA levels 5 years later [d = .75 adjusting for (a); d = .60 adjusting for (b)].

Conclusion:

PA should be promoted in youth as tracking coefficients suggest it can, to an extent, continue into later life. The standard achieved in sport has a role in predicting later PA. PA promotion strategies should include frequent, high quality opportunities for sports participation.

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Jennie A. Phillips and Deborah Rohm Young

Background:

This study examined associations between sports participation, physical activity, fitness level, and body mass index in ninth-grade girls.

Methods:

Data were analyzed for 221 participants who completed sports participation and physical activity recall questionnaires, an aerobic step test, and height and weight measurement.

Results:

On average, participants had low physical activity levels, and many were overweight or obese (47%). About half participated in at least one organized sport in the previous year. Sports participants had higher current estimated energy expenditure compared with non-sports participants (P = .0007). Those who participated on at least two teams were more likely to complete the three-stage step test without reaching their target heart rate than those who did not participate on any teams (P < .03). Past sports participation was positively associated with current physical activity and fitness levels.

Conclusion:

Urban adolescent girls who participate in sports have increased energy expenditure and higher fitness levels, indicating sports as a potential strategy to improve physical activity and health in this population.

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Eva A. Jaarsma, Rienk Dekker, Steven A. Koopmans, Pieter U. Dijkstra and Jan H.B. Geertzen

We examined barriers to and facilitators of sports participation in people with visual impairments. Participants registered at Royal Visio, Bartiméus, and the Eye Association were invited to complete a questionnaire (telephone or online). Six hundred forty-eight of the invited participants (13%) completed the questionnaire, and 63% of the respondents reported sports participation. Walking (43%), fitness (34%), and cycling (34%) were frequently mentioned sports. Costs, lack of peers/buddies, and visual impairment were negatively associated with sports participation, whereas higher education and computer (software) use were positively associated. The most important personal barrier was visual impairment; transport was the most important environmental barrier. Active participants also mentioned dependence on others as a personal barrier. The most important personal facilitators were health, fun, and social contacts; support from family was the most important environmental facilitator. To improve sports participation in people with visual impairments, the emphasis in a sports program should be on the positive aspects of sports, such as fun, health, and social contacts.

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Tomasz Tasiemski, Paul Kennedy, Brian P. Gardner and Rachel A. Blaikley

The aims of this study were to investigate “athletic identity” in people with spinal cord injury (SCI), using the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS), to evaluate the psychometric properties of the 7-item version, and to identify reasons for and barriers to sports participation in this population. People with SCI (N = 678), even those competing as athletes, reported lower levels of athletic identity than able-bodied adults and adolescents with physical disabilities. AIMS scores varied according to gender, athlete status, and hours of sports participation per week. No relationship was found between athletic identity and depression, anxiety, or life satisfaction. Exploratory factor analysis did not support the 3-factor structure of the AIMS with this population, although internal consistency was good.

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Esther Hartman, Suzanne Houwen and Chris Visscher

This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine their active involvement in organized sports. The deaf children had significantly more borderline and definite motor problems than the normative sample: 62% (manual dexterity), 52% (ball skills), and 45% (balance skills). Participation in organized sports was reported by 43% of the children; these children showed better performance on ball skills and dynamic balance. This study demonstrates the importance of improving deaf children’s motor skill performance, which might contribute positively to their sports participation.

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Robert H. DuRant, Amy B. Middleman, Annie H. Faulkner, S. Jean Emans and Elizabeth R. Woods

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among anabolic-androgenic steroid use and other drug use, strength training, sports participation, and school performance of high school students. Among males not participating in school sports, 37% of the variation in anabolic steroid use was accounted for by frequency of cocaine use, injected drug use, other drug use, and engaging in strength training. Injection drug use and poly-drug use accounted for 22.1% of the variation in the frequency of anabolic-steroid use among males participating in school sports, 29.1% of the variation among females participating in school sports, and 63.3% of the variation among females not participating in school sports.

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Kyle R. Lynch, Michael Fredericson, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Ricardo R. Agostinete, Igor H. Ito, Rafael Luiz-de-Marco, Mario A. Rodrigues-Junior and Rômulo A. Fernandes

In 2016, the city of Rio de Janeiro held the Olympic Games, 4 years after London and 8 years after Beijing. In the months leading up to the Olympic Games, there was an intensive discussion in the society about the “legacy” of this event. Regarding legacy, the promotion of sports participation among

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Job Fransen, Dieter Deprez, Johan Pion, Isabel B Tallir, Eva D’Hondt, Roel Vaeyens, Matthieu Lenoir and Renaat M. Philippaerts

The goal of this study was to investigate differences in physical fitness and sports participation over 2 years in children with relatively high, average, and low motor competence. Physical fitness and gross motor coordination of 501 children between 6–10 years were measured at baseline and baseline+2 years. The sample compromised 2 age cohorts: 6.00–7.99 and 8.00–9.99 years. An age and sex-specific motor quotient at baseline testing was used to subdivide these children into low (MQ < P33), average (P33 ≤ MQ < P66) and high (MQ ≥ P66) motor competence groups. Measures of sports participation were obtained through a physical activity questionnaire in 278 of the same children. Repeated Measures MANCOVA and two separate ANOVAs were used to analyze differences in changes in physical fitness and measures of sports participation respectively. Children with high motor competence scored better on physical fitness tests and participated in sports more often. Since physical fitness levels between groups changed similarly over time, low motor competent children might be at risk for being less physically fit throughout their life. Furthermore, since low motor competent children participate less in sports, they have fewer opportunities of developing motor abilities and physical fitness and this may further prevent them from catching up with their peers with an average or high motor competence.