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Eva A. Jaarsma, Rienk Dekker, Steven A. Koopmans, Pieter U. Dijkstra and Jan H.B. Geertzen

We examined barriers to and facilitators of sports participation in people with visual impairments. Participants registered at Royal Visio, Bartiméus, and the Eye Association were invited to complete a questionnaire (telephone or online). Six hundred forty-eight of the invited participants (13%) completed the questionnaire, and 63% of the respondents reported sports participation. Walking (43%), fitness (34%), and cycling (34%) were frequently mentioned sports. Costs, lack of peers/buddies, and visual impairment were negatively associated with sports participation, whereas higher education and computer (software) use were positively associated. The most important personal barrier was visual impairment; transport was the most important environmental barrier. Active participants also mentioned dependence on others as a personal barrier. The most important personal facilitators were health, fun, and social contacts; support from family was the most important environmental facilitator. To improve sports participation in people with visual impairments, the emphasis in a sports program should be on the positive aspects of sports, such as fun, health, and social contacts.

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Esther Hartman, Suzanne Houwen and Chris Visscher

This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine their active involvement in organized sports. The deaf children had significantly more borderline and definite motor problems than the normative sample: 62% (manual dexterity), 52% (ball skills), and 45% (balance skills). Participation in organized sports was reported by 43% of the children; these children showed better performance on ball skills and dynamic balance. This study demonstrates the importance of improving deaf children’s motor skill performance, which might contribute positively to their sports participation.

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Tomasz Tasiemski, Paul Kennedy, Brian P. Gardner and Rachel A. Blaikley

The aims of this study were to investigate “athletic identity” in people with spinal cord injury (SCI), using the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS), to evaluate the psychometric properties of the 7-item version, and to identify reasons for and barriers to sports participation in this population. People with SCI (N = 678), even those competing as athletes, reported lower levels of athletic identity than able-bodied adults and adolescents with physical disabilities. AIMS scores varied according to gender, athlete status, and hours of sports participation per week. No relationship was found between athletic identity and depression, anxiety, or life satisfaction. Exploratory factor analysis did not support the 3-factor structure of the AIMS with this population, although internal consistency was good.

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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin and Kim Graber

within reasonable proximity, and the absence of support from individuals without a physical disability ( Jaarsma, Geertzen, Jong, Dijkstra, & Dekker, 2014 ; Wu & Williams, 2001 ). Facilitators of sports participation for individuals with and without a physical disability appear to be similar. Both

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Martin Kristiansen, Ryna Levy-Milne, Susan Barr and Anne Flint

The purpose of this study was to assess reasons for and prevalence of supplement use among varsity athletes and nonvarsity athlete students (controls) at a Canadian university. A questionnaire, distributed to 247 varsity athletes and 204 controls, included variables regarding sports participation, supplements used, reasons for usage, perceived effects, and areas of interest about supplements. Response rates were 85.5% among varsity athletes and 44.6% among controls. Supplements were used by 98.6% of varsity athletes and 94.3% of controls. Varsity men most often reported using sports drinks, and used these (and carbohydrate gels, protein powder, and creatine) more than varsity women. Caffeine products were most often reported by other groups. Health professionals and the Internet were the most reported information sources, while friends most often recommended supplements. Many subjects indicated knowing little about supplements and wanting to learn more. Results indicate a need for nutrition education among both varsity athletes and university students.

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Rienk M.A. van der Slikke, Daan J.J. Bregman, Monique A.M. Berger, Annemarie M.H. de Witte and Dirk-Jan (H.) E.J. Veeger

In most Paralympic sports, a classification system is used to attain fair competition among athletes with various levels of impairment. The Paralympic classification systems aim to promote sports participation of people with disabilities by minimizing the impact of eligible types of impairment on

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Sarah Staal, Anders Sjödin, Ida Fahrenholtz, Karen Bonnesen and Anna Katarina Melin

.1002/eat.20604 Sundgot-Borgen , J. ( 1993 ). Prevalence of eating disorders in elite female athletes . International Journal of Sports Nutrition, 3 , 29 – 40 . PubMed ID: 8499936 doi:10.1123/ijsn.3.1.29 10.1123/ijsn.3.1.29 Tenforde , A.S. , & Fredericson , M. ( 2011 ). Influence of sports

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Bryan Holtzman, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale and Kathryn E. Ackerman

consensus between the tools on the high-risk category for athletes (restricted from sports participation) suggests the screening tools should be refined to be more explicit regarding particular medical conditions, such as severe ED or bradycardia. Each screening tool is anticipated to evolve as more data

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Regina Belski, Alex Donaldson, Kiera Staley, Anne Skiadopoulos, Erica Randle, Paul O’Halloran, Pam Kappelides, Steve Teakel, Sonya Stanley and Matthew Nicholson

://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Products/4901.0~Apr+2012~Main+Features~Sports+participation?OpenDocument Australian Football League . ( 2017 ). This is our game . Retrieved from www.aflcommunityclub.com.au/index.php?id=32 Bandura , A. ( 1977 ). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change . Psychological Review, 84 ( 2

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Jorge Carlos-Vivas, Jorge Perez-Gomez, Ola Eriksrud, Tomás T. Freitas, Elena Marín-Cascales and Pedro E. Alcaraz

6 months that limited sports participation for more than 7 days and no medical condition preventing maximal exertion. Twelve players dropped out of the study for different reasons: unable to complete 90% of training sessions (n = 5), suffered an adverse event (n = 1) or lower-limb injury (n = 2), or