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Thomas Dos’Santos, Christopher Thomas, Paul A. Jones and Paul Comfort


To investigate the within-session reliability of bilateral- and unilateral-stance isometric midthigh-pull (IMTP) force–time characteristics including peak force (PF), relative PF, and impulse at time bands (0–100, 0–200, 0–250, and 0–300 milliseconds) and to compare isometric force–time characteristics between right and left and dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) limbs.


Professional male rugby league and multisport male college athletes (N = 54; age, 23.4 ± 4.2 y; height, 1.80 ± 0.05 m; mass, 88.9 ± 12.9 kg) performed 3 bilateral IMTP trials and 6 unilateral-stance IMTP trials (3 per leg) on a force plate sampling at 600 Hz.


Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation (CVs) demonstrated high within-session reliability for bilateral and unilateral IMTP PF (ICC = .94, CV = 4.7–5.5%). Lower reliability measures and greater variability were observed for bilateral and unilateral IMTP impulse at time bands (ICC = .81–.88, CV = 7.7–11.8%). Paired-sample t tests and Cohen d effect sizes revealed no significant differences for all isometric force–time characteristics between right and left limbs in male college athletes (P >.05, d ≤ 0.32) and professional rugby league players (P > .05, d ≤ 0.11); however, significant differences were found between D and ND limbs in male college athletes (P < .001, d = 0.43–0.91) and professional rugby league players (P < .001, d = 0.27–0.46).


This study demonstrated high within-session reliability for unilateral-stance IMTP PF, revealing significant differences in isometric force–time characteristics between D and ND limbs in male athletes.

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Eryk P. Przysucha and M. Jane Taylor

The purpose of this study was to compare the postural sway profiles of 20 boys with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) on two conditions of a quiet standing task: eyes open and eyes closed. Anterior-posterior (AP) sway, medio-lateral sway (LAT), area of sway, total path length, and Romberg’s quotient were analyzed. When visual information was available, there was no difference between groups in LAT sway or path length. However, boys with DCD demonstrated more AP sway (p < .01) and greater area of sway (p < .03), which resulted in pronounced excursions closer to their stability limits. Analysis of Romberg’s quotient indicated that boys with DCD did not over-rely on visual information.

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Gerda Strutzenberger, Adam Brazil, Timothy Exell, Hans von Lieres und Wilkau, John D. Davies, Steffen Willwacher, Johannes Funken, Ralf Müller, Kai Heinrich, Hermann Schwameder, Wolfgang Potthast and Gareth Irwin

-m race time. 3 After block clearance, the highest gain of horizontal velocity occurs during the first step, 4 followed by the second step, after which approximately half of the maximum horizontal velocity is achieved, 3 whereas vertical acceleration of the COM occurs similarly during both stance

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Nicholas Tam, Ross Tucker, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Danielle Prins and Robert P. Lamberts

GRF resultant vector and the leg axis during stance, leg stiffness, and stride angles did show good relationships with running economy. 13 , 14 In addition to these biomechanical features, certain neuromuscular factors controlling movement initiation and regulation, such as muscle activation during

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Amy Waters, Elissa Phillips, Derek Panchuk and Andrew Dawson

with major and minor categories inferred from keywords of the two participant groups responses. They were coded in terms of the specific phase, or aspect of the sprinting action that they referred to such as the “Stance Phase” or “Arm” movement. After a familiarisation stage, of reading all the survey

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Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young and Brendan J. O’Brien

respect to the stance of a live batter and the bounce of the new ball. The batter “took guard” on the line of middle stump and stood with feet parallel and either side of the popping crease. A live batter was included for 2 primary reasons: to provide specific cues for the bouncer (short-pitched delivery

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Nicola Theis and Keith Davids

–ground collision during running ( Derrick et al., 1998 ), leading to high ground reaction forces during the stance phase of running. The events surrounding these collisions are the main source of impact shock, which is transmitted through the leg and rest of the body ( Gruber et al., 2014 ). One important effect

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Pamela C. Allison, Becky W. Pissanos, Adrian P. Turner and Denise R. Law

The constructivist theoretical tenet, that individuals create meaning based on the interaction of their previous knowledge and beliefs with currently experienced phenomena, served as the orientating framework for inquiry into a physical education teacher education program that emphasizes development of skillful movers as the primary goal of physical education. Epistemological stances on movement skillfullness held by 25 beginning preservice teachers were explored. Data were collected in a directed reflective format. Inductive data analysis revealed that these preservice teachers see above average ability, task commitment, and creativity as characteristic of being skillful. Their constructs of skillfulness were developed in contexts that include the human body in action, intermesh of movements, whole pattern of performance, presence of movement, the sociocultural event, and skillfulness as a backdrop for teaching. These findings informed the dialectic between teacher education faculty and students by creating avenues for shared understandings of the epistemological bases of the program.

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Jens Omli

This article is an introduction to the MVP model, which focuses on the experience of competitive sport performance from a phenomenological stance, with particular emphasis on the influence of perceived success and failure. One premise of the MVP model is that sport performance is partially determined by the athlete’s interpretation of prior performances, which influences the trajectory and intensity of his or her phenomenological state. A second premise is that when the experiences described by athletes are analyzed together as a “layered picture,” these experiences tend to follow a pattern summarized by a sequence of six “competitive positions,” which can be arranged around a semicircumplex called the “Performance Dial.” The Performance Dial is an educational tool that can be used in consultations to facilitate communication between practitioners and athletes. The MVP model also serves as a framework within which sport psychology research findings can be understood in relation to the experience of sport performance, thereby increasing the applicability of sport performance research for practitioners.

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Bob LaRose

The growth of sport psychology has brought many positive advances and claims for achievement, but it has also brought controversy. Debate has beset the profession concerning classification (psychologist or consultant?), role (clinician or educator?), clientele (coach, athlete, or administrator?), ethics (whose purpose is to be served and who is being threatened?), and process (performance enhancement, winning, or personal fulfillment?). In this paper, the educational consultant in higher education is offered as a role model to help reduce the confusion and refocus attention on a more widely applicable role. Most sport psychologists today deal directly with athletes, usually elite athletes. However, as with physical skills, psychological skills require time and effort to fully develop. In order to address this time factor, this paper takes the stance that there is a growing need to train experts in the field to focus their efforts on the coach rather than the athlete. The consulting role, focus, and process suggested here could be of value to interested personnel at all levels of sport, and could provide a means for all participants to realize their fullest potential.