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Collin A. Webster

Expert golf instructors self-monitor their instruction and communication more than any other aspects of their teaching (Schempp, McCullick, Busch, Webster, & Sannen-Mason, 2006). Despite its apparent importance, however, the communication of expert golf instructors has received little investigative attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional communication behaviors of 4 of the most highly accomplished golf instructors in the United States. Ladies Professional Golf Association instructors who met criteria for expert teaching (Berliner, 1994) and 4 students participated in the study. Videotaping, stimulated recall, and semistructured interviews were used to collect data on the teachers’ immediacy, communication style, and content relevance behaviors. Data were analyzed using modified analytic induction (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992). Findings indicated that the experts adapted their communication behaviors in ways that fit students’ learning preferences, personal experiences, and lesson goals. The findings resonate with previous research on expert teaching in terms of experts’ instructional flexibility.

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Adam J. Nichol, Philip R. Hayes, Will Vickery, Emma Boocock, Paul Potrac, and Edward T. Hall

that shaped human agency and the relations that such agency could in turn transform or reproduce ( Rees & Gatenby, 2014 ). Data were generated through three principal methods: participant observation, semistructured interviews, and stimulated recall interviews. Participant Observation The first author

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Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, Deborah. S. Baxter, and Leah K. May

exclusively, worked within the interpretive paradigm. They have studied relatively small samples of participants intensely and collected data with a number of qualitative techniques, the most prominent of which have been observations, formal interviews of teachers and students, stimulated recall and informal

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Colin G. Pennington, and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

.87%) 3 15 13 13  Document analysis 26 (9.59%) 0 12 8 6  Questionnaires/surveys 48 (17.71%) 6 12 16 14  Interviews   informal interviews 32 (25.81%) b 1 15 9 7   stimulated recall 7 (5.65%) b 0 2 5 0   formal interviews 28 (22.58%) b 1 15 8 4   semistructured interviews 33 (26.61%) b 1 7 14 11   group