internationalization will remain a strategic imperative for higher education leaders. Sport management can, and should, be a leader in this area. Internationalization of Sport Athletes and teams are routinely crossing international borders for competitions ( Popp, Hums, & Greenwell, 2009 ; Thibault, 2009
W. James (Jim) Weese
Lucie Thibault, Trevor Slack, and Bob Hinings
In order to anticipate changes and challenges in their environments, sport organizations must formulate strategies. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for the study of strategy formulation in nonprofit sport organizations. Based predominantly on MacMillan's (1983) work on the nonprofit sector, and using Canadian national sport organizations as an illustration, this study identified several strategic imperatives to uncover the types of strategies that could be undertaken by nonprofit sport organizations. The imperatives were grouped into two dimensions; program attractiveness and competitive position. Under program attractiveness, the following imperatives were considered: “fundability,” size of client base, volunteer appeal, and support group appeal. The dimension of competitive position included the imperatives of equipment costs and affiliation fees. The two dimensions were juxtaposed on a matrix to produce four strategic types: enhancers, innovators, refiners, and explorers. The characteristics of these types and their implications for nonprofit sport organizations are discussed.
Hunter Fujak, Stephen Frawley, Heath McDonald, and Stephen Bush
competition, both on and off the field, is a critical success factor and a strategic imperative in its own right. Competition, therefore, is the heart and soul of sport management” ( Shilbury, 2012 , p. 2). Although sport consumption has emerged as a vital area of research, the field has largely focused on