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Jerónimo Aragón-Vela, Yaira Barranco-Ruiz, Cristina Casals-Vázquez, Julio Plaza-Díaz, Rafael A. Casuso, Luis Fontana and Jesús F. Rodríguez Huertas

and performance of athletes’ lower body is half squat ( McMaster, Gill, Cronin, & McGuigan, 2014 ), both male and female athletes carried out a maximum incremental strength test (MIST) in a half-squat apparatus with increasing intensities until they reached their one repetition maximum (1RM). We show

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Justin W.Y. Lee, Ming-Jing Cai, Patrick S.H. Yung and Kai-Ming Chan

user-friendly, the measurement largely depends on the skills and strength of the operator. 10 , 14 Especially for the hamstring strength endurance measurement, the operator will also fatigue during the trial. 5 For others on-field hamstring strength testing methods, the concurrent validity are yet to

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Ralf Roth, Lars Donath, Lukas Zahner and Oliver Faude

For performance and injury prevention in sport, core strength and endurance are focused prerequisites. Therefore we evaluated characteristics of trunk muscle activation and performance during strength-endurance related trunk field tests. Strength-endurance ability, as total time to failure, and activation of trunk muscles was measured in 39 football players of the highest German female football league (Bundesliga) (N = 18, age: 20.7 y [SD 4.4]) and the highest national male under-19 league (N = 21, age: 17.9 y [0.7]) in prone plank, side plank, and dorsal position. Maximal isometric force was assessed during trunk extension and flexion, rotation, and lateral flexion to normalize EMG and to compare with the results of strength-endurance tests. For all positions of endurance strength tests, a continuous increase in normalized EMG activation was observed (P < .001). Muscle activation of the rectus abdominis and external oblique in prone plank position exceeded the maximal voluntary isometric contraction activation, with a significantly higher activation in females (P = .02). We conclude, that in the applied strength-endurance testing, the activation of trunk muscles was high, especially in females. As high trunk muscle activation can infer fatigue, limb strength can limit performance in prone and side plank position, particularly during high trunk muscle activation.

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Vassilis Gerodimos and Konstantina Karatrantou

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intersession and the intrasession reliability of maximal handgrip strength test in young wrestlers. Twenty-seven prepubertal (9.49 ± 0.96yrs) and twenty-seven pubertal (14.60 ± 0.50yrs) male wrestlers performed two assessment sessions separated by one day. Both assessments included a testing protocol consisted of three maximal isometric contractions, on both hands using a hydraulic dynamometer (Jamar). The intersession and intrasession reliability was high for both prepubertal and pubertal wrestlers (ICC = 0.87−0.99). The single trial as well as the best of two and three trials of handgrip strength were slightly less reliable (ICC = 0.87−0.94) than the mean of two and three trials in prepubertal (ICC = 0.95−0.97). The present results indicate that maximum handgrip strength can be measured reliably, using the Jamar dynamometer, in young wrestlers. A single trial as well as the two trials can be used as reliable, less-tiring and less time-consuming methods for the evaluation of handgrip strength than the three trials.

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Thomas M. Comyns, Eamonn P. Flanagan, Sean Fleming, Evan Fitzgerald and Damian J. Harper

current study, Beattie and Flanagan 26 also observed that the DJ-40 reactive strength test was unable to detect the SWC. The observed CV was greater than the calculated SWC. However, other studies have observed much lower CV for RSI in the drop jump. Markwick et al 27 observed RSI CVs of 2.1% to 3

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Jim Wilcox, Rich Larson, Kevin M. Brochu and Avery D. Faigenbaum


The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the performance of explosive-force movements before bench-press exercise would improve 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) strength.


Twelve male college athletes participated in 3 testing sessions separated by at least 5 days of rest. During each testing session, the 1RM was assessed on the bench-press exercise. After a general warm-up, subjects performed a specific warm-up that consisted of submaximal sets with increasing loads on the bench-press exercise before attempting a 1RM lift. During the first testing trial, subjects performed a series of 1RM attempts with increasing loads until their 1RM was determined. During the second and third testing trials, subjects performed in a counterbalanced randomized order either 2 plyometric push-ups or 2 medicine-ball (3 to 5 kg) chest passes 30 seconds before each 1RM attempt.


Analysis of the data revealed that 1RM bench-press strength was significantly greater after plyometric push-ups (P = .004) or chest passes (P = .025) in comparison with the first trial (123.8 ± 23.5 kg and 124.0 ± 24.1 kg vs 120.9 ± 23.2 kg, respectively).


These data suggest that an acute bout of low-volume, explosive-force upper body movements performed 30 seconds before a 1RM attempt might enhance bench-press performance in athletic men.

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Francisco J. Vera-Garcia, Diego López-Plaza, Casto Juan-Recio and David Barbado

the core to the limbs) and are normally performed in single-leg stance, as for example, the 3-Plane Core Strength Test and the Star Excursion Balance Test 2 , 17 , 21 , 23 ; and (3) trunk muscle fitness tests, which generally measure isometric trunk endurance, such as the Biering-Sørensen Test, 17

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Aurora de Fátima G.C. Mafra Cabral, Marcelo Medeiros Pinheiro, Charlles H.M. Castro, Marco Túlio De Mello, Sérgio Tufik and Vera Lúcia Szejnfeld

spent to get up an armless chair, walk 3 m, stroll and walk back, and sit back in the chair, all without hand support ( Podsiadlo & Richardson, 1991 ); the handgrip strength test (HST), performed using a dynamometer (Jamar) and using the protocol recommended by the American Society of Hand Therapists

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Samuel Ryan, Thomas Kempton, Emidio Pacecca and Aaron J. Coutts

analysis (825 of a possible 1035 tests were analyzed throughout the season). Players were required to lie beneath the GroinBar Hip Strength Testing System (Vald Performance, Albion, Australia) in a supine position with their knee joints at an angle of 60°. Bar height was customized for each player to

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Jeanne F. Nichols, Lori M. Hitzelberger, Jennifer G. Sherman and Patricia Patterson

This study examined the efficacy of a progressive resistance exercise program, using equal concentric/eccentric (CE) or greater eccentric/concentric (GE) workloads, for increasing strength and improving functional abilities of community-dwelling older adults. Sixty men and women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: CE, GE, or control. All strength testing and training took place on six Lifecircuit machines. Functional tests included a bas carry, weighted stair climb, shelf task 1-RM, and static balance. Significant interactions in strength tests were noted for the chest, back, and shoulder exercises. GE improved in shoulder strength more than CE and control For functional measures, all weight trainers were grouped and compared to controls. A significant interaction occurred for the stair climb and balance with the exercise groups decreasing stair climb time by 11% and increasing balance time by 26%. Relative improvements by weight trainers of 12% for the shelf task and 7% for the bag carry were not significant. These data indicate that a moderate intensity resistance program can have positive effects on tasks required for everyday function.