Physical exercise is touted as being beneficial for enhancing the functional quality of the skeletal system, as well as the cardiovascular and muscular systems. Unwise training practices, however, combined with potential risk factors may dispose an individual to a bone stress reaction (bone responses to repetitive loads within the physiological range) or stress fracture (frank fracture of a bone from clinically significant stress reactions that produce structural failure). Here, we trace the terms that have been used to describe these injuries and recount the etiology of stress reactions and fractures. Epidemiological data have been reported for military and athletic populations, and in many instances recurring risk factors have been identified, both those that can be modified and those that cannot. In this paper, we review epidemiological data and potential risk factors for stress fractures and summarize current thought about the treatment and prevention of these exercise-related injuries.
Susan K. Grimston and Ronald F. Zernicke
This study investigated the effect of psychological pressure on spinal reflex excitability. Thirteen participants performed a balancing task by standing on a balance disk with one foot. After six practice trials, they performed one nonpressure and one pressure trial involving a performance-contingent cash reward or punishment. Stress responses were successfully induced; state anxiety, mental effort, and heart rates all increased under pressure. Soleus Hoffmann reflex amplitude in the pressure trial was significantly smaller than in the nonpressure trial. This modification of spinal reflexes may be caused by presynaptic inhibition under the control of higher central nerve excitation under pressure. This change did not prevent 12 of the 13 participants from successfully completing the postural control task under pressure. These results suggest that Hoffmann reflex inhibition would contribute to optimal postural control under stressful situations.
Randy J. Schmitz, David E. Martin, David H. Perrin, Ali Iranmanesh and Alan D. Rogol
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of interferential current (IFC) on perceived pain and serum Cortisol levels in subjects with delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). DOMS was induced in 10 subjects through repeated eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors. Forty-eight hours later subjects were evaluated. Starting at t = 0:00, blood samples were withdrawn from a superficial vein every 5 min for 65 min. At t = 0:05, subjects received IFC of 10 bps or IFC of 100 bps. Perceived pain levels were evaluated prior to catheter insertion and at t = 0:35, 0:50, and 0:65. Two mixed-model analyses of variance revealed a significant decrease in perceived pain scores across time for both treatment groups but no significant difference in serum Cortisol for the two groups. It was concluded that IFC of high and low beat frequency is effective in controlling the pain of DOMS but does not elicit a generalized stress response as indexed by increasing serum Cortisol levels.
Leilani A. Madrigal and Patrick B. Wilson
This study assessed the hormonal and psychological responses to a free-throw shooting competition in twelve NCAA Division I female collegiate basketball players. Salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and testosterone were collected before and after the competition, in addition to a self-reported measure of anxiety. Using nonparametric statistics, cortisol (Z = –3.06, p = .002) and testosterone (Z = –2.67, p = .008) levels were significantly higher precompetition compared with postcompetition. There were no statistically significant differences between winners and losers for anxiety or hormone responses. Concentration disruption (rho = .63, p = .03) and total competitive anxiety (rho = .68, p = .02) were positively correlated with precompetition cortisol. Concentration disruption also correlated positively with postcompetition cortisol (rho = .62 p = .03) and postcompetition testosterone (rho = .64, p = .03). Future studies are needed to examine the psychological and physiological stress responses of basketball players during different competition tasks.
Mattias Eckerman, Kjell Svensson, Gunnar Edman and Marie Alricsson
leads to a stress response, negative from a performance perspective, and subsequently leads to injury. Apart from the stressor itself, 8 the stress response depends on 3 major psychosocial factors, where personality is one. Research in the field of personality and sports injuries has led to somewhat
André Bateman and Kai A.D. Morgan
physical injury can in itself result in a posttraumatic stress response. 22 – 24 Furthermore, 1 study has shown where individuals who experience a traumatic event that includes bodily injury are significantly more likely to develop PTSD than those who did not experience physical injury as part of their
Francesca Genoese, Shelby E. Baez, Nicholas Heebner, Matthew C. Hoch and Johanna M. Hoch
increase the likelihood of injury. This is further supported by the stress and injury model 10 which suggests that when an athlete encounters a potentially stressful athletic situation, psychological factors, such as injury-related fear, may influence their stress response. This stress response may lead
Johanna M. Hoch, Megan N. Houston, Shelby E. Baez and Matthew C. Hoch
psychosocial factors on sustaining an athletic injury. The model suggests that when an athlete is faced with a potentially stressful athletic situation, the situation may affect the athlete’s stress response and lead to sustaining an athletic injury. Furthermore, the model suggests that the stress response
Jesús Seco-Calvo, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, César Calvo-Lobo and Alfredo Córdova
.1123/ijspp.7.4.357 17. Peake JM , Roberts LA , Figueiredo VC , et al . The effects of cold water immersion and active recovery on inflammation and cell stress responses in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise . J Physiol . 2017 ; 595 ( 3 ): 695 – 711 . PubMed ID: 27704555 doi:10
Marcus Börjesson, Carolina Lundqvist, Henrik Gustafsson and Paul Davis
The sporting arena has the potential to induce a stress response that may interfere with athletes’ attempts to perform to their full potential ( Hanton, Fletcher, & Coughlan, 2005 ). Athletes’ responses to competitive stress often include self-reports of intense levels of anxiety, which