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Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington

differently. 3 While the taper period is designed to reduce training stress and promote recovery, performance in athletic competition has been shown to induce a psychophysiological stress response irrespective of the reduction in training load (TL). Given the sensitivity of immune function to physiological

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John Quindry, Lindsey Miller, Graham McGinnis, Brian Kliszczewiscz, Dustin Slivka, Charles Dumke, John Cuddy and Brent Ruby

Previous research findings indicate that environmental temperature can influence exercise-induced oxidative-stress responses, although the response to variable temperatures is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of warm, cold, and “neutral,” or room, environmental temperatures on the blood oxidative stress associated with exercise and recovery. Participants (N = 12, age 27 ± 5 yr, VO2max = 56.7 ± 5.8 ml · kg-1 · min-1, maximal cycle power output = 300 ± 39 W) completed 3 exercise sessions consisting of a 1-hr ride at 60% Wmax, at 40% relative humidity in warm (33 °C), cold (7 °C), and room-temperature environments (20 °C) in a randomized crossover fashion. Rectal core temperature was monitored continually as participants remained in the respective trial temperature throughout a 3-hr recovery. Blood was collected preexercise and immediately, 1 hr, and 3 hr postexercise and analyzed for oxidative-stress markers including ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), lipid hydroperoxides, and protein carbonyls. Core temperature was significantly elevated by all exercise trials, but recovery core temperatures reflected the given environment. FRAP (p < .001), TEAC (p < .001), and lipid hydroperoxides (p < .001) were elevated after warm exercise while protein carbonyls were not altered (p > .05). These findings indicate that moderate-intensity exercise and associated recovery in a warm environment elicits a blood oxidative-stress response not observed at comparable exercise performed at lower temperatures.

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Melinda Frey

Research has demonstrated that coaches experience stress because of the nature of their job and that stress can affect their physical and mental well-being (Richman, 1992; Wang & Ramsey, 1998). The purpose of the present study was to better understand coaches’ experiences with stress, the perceived effects of stress on their coaching performance, and their coping strategies. A semistructured interview approach was used with 10 NCAA Division I male and female head coaches. The five major themes that characterized the coaches’ experiences were contextual/conditional factors, sources of stress, responses and effects of stress, managing stress, and sources of enjoyment. The results are discussed in relation to Smith’s (1986) cognitive-affective model of stress. Opportunities for future research are suggested, and implications for practitioners who want to help coaches manage the stress of their profession are offered.

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Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles Warrington

over 10 weeks (preseason) with 19 players to investigate the physiological stress response to training. Salivary cortisol was compared with training load and subjective monitoring markers of recovery. Together with saliva collection, the monitoring included a number of subjective markers of recovery

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Bruno Marrier, Alexandre Durguerian, Julien Robineau, Mounir Chennaoui, Fabien Sauvet, Aurélie Servonnet, Julien Piscione, Bertrand Mathieu, Alexis Peeters, Mathieu Lacome, Jean-Benoit Morin and Yann Le Meur

(SAM) are considered the main effectors of the stress responses and induce specific acute adaptations at the central and peripheral levels to cope with the stressor. 17 , 18 Salivary measures of cortisol and testosterone levels are shown to be simple and reliable means for evaluating the activity of

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Coen C.W.G. Bongers, Dominique S.M. ten Haaf, Nicholas Ravanelli, Thijs M.H. Eijsvogels and Maria T.E. Hopman

. Relevance of individual characteristics for human heat stress response is dependent on exercise intensity and climate type . Eur J Appl Physiol . 1998 ; 77 ( 3 ): 231 – 241 . doi: 10.1007/s004210050327 6. Cramer MN , Jay O . Selecting the correct exercise intensity for unbiased comparisons of

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Oliver R. Barley, Dale W. Chapman, Georgios Mavropalias and Chris R. Abbiss

response: evolutionary and ecological physiology . Annu Rev Physiol . 1999 ; 61 ( 1 ): 243 – 282 . doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.61.1.243 10.1146/annurev.physiol.61.1.243 10099689 26. Kregel KC . Heat shock proteins: modifying factors in physiological stress responses and acquired thermotolerance . J

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Jahan Heidari, Jürgen Beckmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Michel Brink, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Claudio Robazza and Michael Kellmann

impaired in terms of higher HR together with a higher resting HR. This may occur as a result of a continuous activation of the sympathetic autonomous nervous system reflecting a chronic stress response and psychophysical overload. 23 , 24 Integrating resting HRV may serve as one important part of

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Joshua Strahorn, Carmen Colomer, Andrew McKune, Christian Cook and Kate Pumpa

. Previous work suggests that both can be effective but may have different playing execution outcomes. 7 Finally, no interaction effect for sal-T was observed, whereas sal-C was typically greater in week 2 versus week 1. Assuming a sustained increase in cortisol is a marker for negative stress response, 1

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Franco M. Impellizzeri, Samuele M. Marcora and Aaron J. Coutts

characteristics are not fixed, the internal load experienced by a specific athlete for a given external load may also change when these factors are modified (ie, changes in their training status, health, etc). In addition, the stress response (ie, internal load) can be influenced by other stressors (eg