To assess whether prior stretching of a muscle can induce improved postural control, 15 healthy adults stood still upright with their eyes closed before and after a series of bilateral stretches of the triceps surae muscles. The analysis focused on the center of pressure (CP) and the vertical projection of the center of gravity (CGv) trajectories and their difference (CP – CGv). The prolonged stretching induced a forward shift of the mean position of the CGv. The frequency analysis showed a constancy of the amplitudes of both basic movements whereas an increased mean power frequency was seen for the CP – CGv movements. A fractional Brownian motion modeling of the trajectories indicates shortest time intervals and lower covered distances by the CGv before a change in its control occurs along the antero-posterior axis. This reorganization is thought to be a result of improved body movement detection, which allows postural control over the longest time intervals to be triggered more rapidly.
Patrice Rougier, Cyril Burdet and Nicolas Genthon
Warren B. Young
Static stretching (SS) is widely used in warm-ups before training and competition. A growing amount of research, however, has demonstrated that SS can impair muscle performance, leading to a reevaluation of optimal warm-up protocols. This commentary discusses many of the methodological issues that can influence conclusions about the acute effects of SS on performance. One difficulty in interpreting the literature is the lack of control or communication about the volume and intensity of the various stretching treatments used. Another major issue is the failure of many researchers to evaluate SS as it is used in practice, particularly the interaction with the other general and sport-specific components of the warm-up. Acute warm-up effects on performance should be considered in conjunction with potential effects on injury prevention. Future directions in research include optimizing general and sport-specific warm-ups, time course of physiological and performance effects, and individualization of warm-ups according to fitness and skill level.
Genki Hatano, Shigeyuki Suzuki, Shingo Matsuo, Satoshi Kataura, Kazuaki Yokoi, Taizan Fukaya, Mitsuhiro Fujiwara, Yuji Asai and Masahiro Iwata
muscle imbalances, which predisposes to muscle injuries, 4 patellar tendinopathy, and patellofemoral pain, 5 and facilitates the development of low back pain. 6 Therefore, obtaining detailed information about the effects of stretching on the hamstring muscles is an important issue that could lead to
Michelle A. Sandrey
Key Points ▸ Passive stretching protocols are used either in the short term or following a 4–6-week intervention. ▸ There is a moderate level of evidence supporting the use of passive stretching for overhead athletes. ▸ The strength of recommendation is grade B due to inconsistent evidence
Landon Lempke, Rebecca Wilkinson, Caitlin Murray and Justin Stanek
Clinical Scenario Stretching exercises are commonly prescribed during warm-up and cool-down protocols, strength and conditioning training programs, and rehabilitation programs. Stretching is applied for the purposes of injury prevention, increasing joint range of motion (ROM), and increasing muscle
Scott W. Cheatham and Russell Baker
body part using a 50% overlapping (distal to proximal) pattern with a relative elongation or stretch force range of 50% to 90% of the band length. 1 After application, the client performs up to a 2-minute “tissue flossing” intervention that may include various active and passive movements of the
Mariam A. Ameer and Qassim I. Muaidi
Acute static stretching (ASS) is well known in changing physical performance and incidence rate of injuries especially in sports field, by increasing joint range of motion (ROM) through the reduction of musculotendinous stiffness and increase of flexibility, even after short-duration stretches (30
Paige E. Rice, Herman van Werkhoven, Edward K. Merritt and Jeffrey M. McBride
The effect of rigorous dance training from a young age might result in positive adaptations to lower leg morphology and well-developed stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) strategies, which fortify performance. The sizable volume of hyperplantarflexion and minimal knee flexion involved in dance skills
Camila Ximenes Santos, Natália Barros Beltrão, André Luiz Torres Pirauá, João Luiz Quagliotti Durigan, David Behm and Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo
, stretching exercises are widely recommended in rehabilitation programs as a strategy for the improvement of range of motion (ROM). 3 Behm et al 4 in their meta-analysis reported that static stretching can reduce the incidence of musculotendinous injuries especially with explosive or high-velocity actions
Michael J. Grey, Charles W. Pierce, Theodore E. Milner and Thomas Sinkjaer
The modulation and strength of the human soleus short latency stretch reflex was investigated by mechanically perturbing the ankle during an unconstrained pedaling task. Eight subjects pedaled at 60 rpm against a preload of 10 Nm. A torque pulse was applied to the crank at various positions during the crank cycle, producing ankle dorsiflexion perturbations of similar trajectory. The stretch reflex was greatest during the power phase of the crank cycle and was decreased to the level of background EMG during recovery. Matched perturbations were induced under static conditions at the same crank angle and background soleus EMG as recorded during the power phase of active pedaling. The magnitude of the stretch reflex during the dynamic condition was not statistically different from that during the static condition throughout the power phase of the movement. The results of this study indicate that the stretch reflex is not depressed during active cycling as has been shown with the H-reflex. This lack of depression may reflect a decreased susceptibility of the stretch reflex to inhibition, possibly originating from presynaptic mechanisms.