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Lee N. Burkett, Joana Ziuraitis and Wayne T. Phillips

The effectiveness of two specific and two non-specific warm-ups on the vertical jump test for female athletes was the focus of this research. The four warm-up procedures were: (a) weighted jumping (WT), (b) submaximal vertical jumping (SUB), (c) stretching (ST), and (d) no warm-up (NW). To control for learning and fatigue, a counter-balanced design was used to test all participants over four different days. Thus all groups were tested in a predetermined order. Participants were 15 university female athletes (age 18 to 23 years). After warming up using one of the four warm-up procedures, three vertical jumps were measured and the best score was used for analysis. A single factors repeated measure analysis of variance and LSD post hoc tests revealed that the weighted jump warm-up procedure was statistically superior (p<0.01) to all other warm-up procedures. No warm-up was statistically inferior to all other warm-ups and submaximal vertical jumping was not statistically different than stretching. It was concluded; (a) performing a warmup is better than no warm-up, and (b) utilizing a weighted resistance-jumping warm-up will produce the highest scores when performing the vertical jump test for female athletes.

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Mary Yoke


Physical inactivity, overweight, and obesity are endemic in the United States and in the developed world, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. More information is needed regarding the physical activity beliefs, attitudes, barriers, and perceived self-control among those who are sedentary and weight-challenged. The purpose of this study was to elicit physical activity beliefs about feasibility, pleasure, and movement descriptions from sedentary, middle-aged, overweight women.


Open-ended questions were used throughout individual interviews with 23 participants (age: M = 52.0, SD = 7.3; BMI: M = 34.2, SD = 9.79); attitudes and beliefs regarding physical activity and movement descriptions were documented. Participants were divided into those who were completely sedentary (12 women) and those who regularly engaged in physical activity (11 women).


A content analysis revealed that sedentary women were less active and had more perceived barriers to physical activity than active women. The most frequently cited perceived barriers were injuries, caregiving responsibilities, time, age, dislike of sweating, and depression. Sedentary women were less likely to report physical activity as pleasurable; they were also more likely to cite having an exercise buddy as an optimal activity situation. The most frequently cited pleasurable activities in both groups were yoga, movement to music, stretching, and walking.


This study provided evidence that perceived barriers to physical activity must be addressed, that low-intensity programs are needed and desired by overweight and sedentary women, and that movement activities must be found that are enjoyable for the target population.

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Michael Messner

By the mid-Twentieth Century in the U.S., a dominant ideology of natural, categorical differences between women and men was an organic part of the unequal distribution of women and men into domestic and public realms, especially in middle class families. Sport was a key site for the naturalization of this ideology, which I call “hard essentialism.” Since the 1970s, an explosion of female athletic participation mirrored the movement of women into the professions, leading scholars to examine sport as a terrain of contested gender relations. This paper extends that discussion by positing a four-part periodization of hegemonic and counter-hegemonic gender ideologies, stretching from the mid-Twentieth Century to the present. Touching down empirically on contemporary professional class youth sports coaches’ views of children and gender, I identify an ascendant gender ideology I call “soft essentialism.” I argue that youth sports has become a key site for the construction of soft essentialist narratives that appropriate the liberal feminist language of “choice” for girls, but not for boys, thus serving to recreate and naturalize class-based gender asymmetries and inequalities. I end by outlining emergent strategies that spring from the contradictions of soft essentialism.

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Deborah Jump

, there is no mention of more recent U.K based stories such as Ched Evans, however this could be merely down to timing. The book mainly focuses on boxing when making arguments surrounding specific sports and reduction in offending, yet Groombridge stretches arguments to motor sports and football, which is

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Jenny McMahon, Camilla J. Knight and Kerry R. McGannon

them. The three stories presented to parents in this phase feature directly below. “The nine year old gymnast” At gymnastics training, the kids stand in a line. Most of the kids in this group are aged 9 years. They begin the session by doing stretching. The coach and the assistants have been focusing

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Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer and Kelly Pritchett

– 642 . PubMed ID: 18618137 doi:10.1007/s00421-008-0809-4 10.1007/s00421-008-0809-4 Yapicioglu , B. , Colakoglu , M. , Colakoglu , Z. , Gulluoglu , H. , Bademkiran , F. , & Ozkaya , O. ( 2013 ). Effects of a dynamic warm-up, static stretching or static stretching with tendon vibration on

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Helene Joncheray, Fabrice Burlot, Nicolas Besombes, Sébastien Dalgalarrondo and Mathilde Desenfant

& Thiel, 2014 ). Having these skills helped her/him to be autonomous: My job (physiotherapist) allowed me never to be hurt in my career. Everything that relates to stretching, diet, that I know. (Respondent #16) Finally, this quest and/or desire for autonomy can also take the form of coordination work

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Amanda J. Visek, Heather Mannix, Avinash Chandran, Sean D. Cleary, Karen A. McDonnell and Loretta DiPietro

.39  Showing team spirit (gear, ribbons, signs) (56) 3.10  Getting help from teammates (75) 4.00  Playing in tournaments (55) 3.33  High-fiving, fist-bumping, hugging (39) 3.04  Warming up and stretching as a team (68) 3.95 #6. Practices 3.70  End-of-season/team parties (3) 2.76 #3. Positive Coaching 4

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Kristen Lucas and E. Whitney G. Moore

completed a survey that took 10–15 minutes. See Table  1 for further details regarding the participants. Table 1 Sample Demographic Information Sex % Hispanic % Class Type %  Male 38  Yes 6  Yoga 35  Female 62  No 94  Weight Training 15 Year of College Race  Sculpt, Stretch, & Tone 7  Freshman 12

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between females and males while throwing a ball for sport (Young, 1980, p. 137). He observed and commented that “a boy of the same age, when preparing to throw, stretches his right arm sideward and backward… he can support his throwing almost the full strength of his momentum”. He concluded that “the