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Neal R. Glaviano and Susan Saliba

poor outcomes. 14 Patient-reported disability and functional scales are common clinical and research assessments to evaluate the subjective function in those with PFP. Although a variety of patient-reported outcomes are used within the PFP population, the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) and Activities

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Charlie A. Hicks-Little, Richard D. Peindl, Tricia J. Hubbard-Turner and Mitchell L. Cordova

Context:

Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease that affects an estimated 27 million Americans. Changes in lowerextremity alignment and joint laxity have been found to redistribute the medial and/or lateral loads at the joint. However, the effect that changes in anteroposterior knee-joint laxity have on lower-extremity alignment and function in individuals with knee OA remains unclear.

Objective:

To examine anteroposterior knee-joint laxity, lower-extremity alignment, and subjective pain, stiffness, and function scores in individuals with early-stage knee OA and matched controls and to determine if a relationship exists among these measures.

Design:

Case control.

Setting:

Sports-medicine research laboratory.

Participants:

18 participants with knee OA and 18 healthy matched controls.

Intervention:

Participants completed the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) osteoarthritis questionnaire and were tested for total anteroposterior knee-joint laxity (A-P) and knee-joint alignment (ALIGN).

Main Outcome Measures:

WOMAC scores, A-P (mm), and ALIGN (°).

Results:

A significant multivariate main effect for group (Wilks’ Λ = 0.30, F 7,26 = 8.58, P < .0001) was found. Knee-OA participants differed in WOMAC scores (P < .0001) but did not differ from healthy controls on ALIGN (P = .49) or total A-P (P = .66). No significant relationships were identified among main outcome measures.

Conclusion:

These data demonstrate that participants with early-stage knee OA had worse pain, stiffness, and functional outcome scores than the matched controls; however, ALIGN and A-P were no different. There was no association identified among participants’ subjective scores, ALIGN, or A-P measures in this study.

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Rebecca K. Dickinson and Stephanie J. Hanrahan

This study investigated the properties of the Athens Insomnia Scale (Soldatos et al., 2000), the Fatigue Severity Scale (Krupp et al., 1989), and subscales of the SLEEP-50 Questionnaire (Spoormaker et al., 2005) in elite Australian athletes, to determine their appropriateness for this population. Fifty-nine athletes (29 male, 30 female, M = 21.86 yrs, SD = 7.44) from elite basketball, rowing, netball, beach volleyball, and sailing squads completed measures. A subset (n= 20) completed measures again at a 1-month interval, and a further subset (n= 5) were interviewed about their thoughts regarding the measures and their understanding of sleep. All scales and subscales displayed high internal consistency, apart from that which contained items not theoretically related, and all displayed good 1-month test-retest reliability. All measures were significantly correlated, demonstrating convergent validity. Athletes reported few sleep problems, but moderate fatigue. Athletes stated the measures produced accurate reflections of their sleep and fatigue, but also suggested improvements. Research limitations and implications are discussed.

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Natalie Cook and Tamerah N. Hunt

behavior. 9 Furthermore, the theory of planned behavior also considers personal and social influences on a person’s behavior. 9 According to the theory of planned behavior, a person’s intention to perform a behavior can be predicted from the person’s attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral

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Hatice Mujde Ayık and Michael J. Griffin

stability can be predicted from either the r.m.s. magnitude or the peak magnitude of oscillations. It was hypothesized that within acceleration waveforms having the same duration, same frequency, and same r.m.s. magnitude, postural stability would decrease (as measured subjectively by self

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Justin L. Rush, Lindsey K. Lepley, Steven Davi and Adam S. Lepley

quadriceps strength and voluntary activation were also present in both the active tDCS and sham conditions when observing the pre and post time points. There were no differences in subjective scoring for the KOOS Pn and KOOS Sx. Both VL and VM %EMG max activity significantly declined following the 20-minute

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Cédrick T. Bonnet

/body movements in the fixation task because these relations could not directly test the model. Indeed, there are no precise gaze shifts in this task. In Bonnet et al. ( 2017 ), we also showed that the subjective cognitive involvement was significantly higher in searching than in free-viewing task. Moreover

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Emily R. Hunt, Cassandra N. Parise and Timothy A. Butterfield

the best and most current literature that measured the effects of conservative, nonoperative ACL treatment on quadriceps strength and patient-perceived function using isokinetic dynamometry, the single-leg hop test, or the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form. Focused

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James L. Farnsworth II, Todd Evans, Helen Binkley and Minsoo Kang

, college athlete with no injury). Several different knee-specific PROMs have been developed, such as the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee form (IKDC), Knee Outcome Survey Sports Activity Scale, Cincinnati Knee Rating System, and Lysholm

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Hin Fong Leong, Wing-Kai Lam, Wei Xuan Ng and Pui Wah Kong

equipment and complex data processing procedures are often involved. This makes COP assessment an impractical option for the vast majority of basketball players outside the laboratory environment. Athletes and coaches are inclined to select footwear based on subjective evaluations instead. Thus