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Phillip M. Bellinger, Cameron Ferguson, Tim Newans and Clare L. Minahan

performance, 7 – 9 practitioners have incorporated wellness questionnaires into their monitoring practices. 4 , 10 – 12 As such, it is thought that subjective wellness scales represent a time-efficient and noninvasive method for practitioners to gain information related to a player’s wellness status and his

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Andrew D. Govus, Aaron Coutts, Rob Duffield, Andrew Murray and Hugh Fullagar

football codes to monitor changes in players’ training and match performance throughout a season. In addition to monitoring external load via GPS and accelerometers, monitoring subjective ratings of wellness and mood states before each training session may provide information about a player’s psychological

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Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles Warrington

’ recovery, both objective (internal and external) and subjective markers should be used. 13 , 14 There is currently a dearth of scientific research investigating the relationship between salivary cortisol, training load, and subjective markers of recovery in rugby union. Stress can be both psychological

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Iñigo Mujika

& Laursen, 2017 ). The aim of this case study was to report on the performance outcomes and subjective assessments of long-term (32 weeks) LCHF diet in a world-class, lacto-ovo vegetarian long-distance triathlete who had been suffering from GI problems in Ironman competition (e.g., malabsorption of

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Jill Borresen and Michael I. Lambert

Purpose:

To establish the relationship between a subjective (session rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) and 2 objective (training impulse [TRIMP]) and summated-heart-rate-zone (SHRZ) methods of quantifying training load and explain characteristics of the variance not accounted for in these relationships.

Methods:

Thirty-three participants trained ad libitum for 2 wk, and their heart rate (HR) and RPE were recorded to calculate training load. Subjects were divided into groups based on whether the regression equations over- (OVER), under- (UNDER), or accurately predicted (ACCURATE) the relationship between objective and subjective methods.

Results:

A correlation of r = .76 (95% CI: .56 to .88) occurred between TRIMP and session-RPE training load. OVER spent a greater percentage of training time in zone 4 of SHRZ (ie, 80% to 90% HRmax) than UNDER (46% ± 8% vs 25% ± 10% [mean ± SD], P = .008). UNDER spent a greater percentage of training time in zone 1 of SHRZ (ie, 50% to 60% HRmax) than OVER (15% ± 8% vs 3% ± 3%, P = .005) and ACCURATE (5% ± 3%, P = .020) and more time in zone 2 of SHRZ (ie, 60% to 70%HRmax) than OVER (17% ± 6% vs 7% ± 6%, P = .039). A correlation of r = .84 (.70 to .92) occurred between SHRZ and session-RPE training load. OVER spent proportionally more time in Zone 4 than UNDER (45% ± 8% vs 25% ± 10%, P = .018). UNDER had a lower training HR than ACCURATE (132 ± 10 vs 148 ± 12 beats/min, P = .048) and spent more time in zone 1 than OVER (15% ± 8% vs 4% ± 3%, P = .013) and ACCURATE (5% ± 3%, P = .015).

Conclusions:

The session-RPE method provides reasonably accurate assessments of training load compared with HR-based methods, but they deviate in accuracy when proportionally more time is spent training at low or high intensity.

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Amelia Mays Woods and Jesse Lee Rhoades

This study examined National Board Certified Physical Education Teacher’s (NBCPETs) demographic characteristics, recalled subjective warrants for entrance into the profession, and reasons for seeking this advanced certification. An extensive search for approximately 1,200 NBCPETs resulted in contact information for 819 NBCPETs. All were sent a demographic questionnaire which 334 returned, resulting in a 41% return rate. Sixty five were randomly selected and participated in qualitative interviews. The results indicate that NBCPETs are predominantly female (79%), Caucasian (78.9%), hold masters degrees (71.1%), and work in the elementary setting (55.1%). The mean age is 45 years, with about 20 years of teaching experience. Several themes related to subjective warrant emerged including career pursuit because of: a joy of working with and helping children; continued association with sport and physical activity; lack of aspirations to coach; and enjoyment of physical activity. The most frequent reasons for pursuit of NBC were related to procurement of financial incentives, an attempt to confront the challenge, and a desire to develop professionally.

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Hannah Macdougall, Paul O’Halloran, Emma Sherry and Nora Shields

The well-being needs and strengths of para-athletes in a global and sport-specific context were investigated across subjective psychological, social, and physical health and well-being dimensions. Data were drawn from (a) semistructured interviews with Australian para-athletes (n = 23), (b) a focus group with the Australian Paralympic Committee (n = 9), and (c) a confirmatory para-athlete focus group (n = 8). The well-being needs and strengths of para-athletes differed across gender, sport, level of competition, and nature of impairment. Well-being needs were an interaction between physical pain, emotional regulation, lacking purpose outside of sport, and a lack of self-acceptance, especially for athletes with acquired impairments. Well-being strengths were perceived to increase as athletes increased their level of competition, and included personal growth, optimism, strong social support networks, and contributing to multiple communities. The importance of well-being as a multidimensional concept within the global and sport-specific context for para-athletes is discussed.

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Hani Al Haddad, Jonathan Parouty and Martin Buchheit

Purpose:

We investigated the effect of daily cold water immersion (CWI), during a typical training week, on parasympathetic activity and subjective ratings of well-being.

Methods:

Over two different weeks, eight highly trained swimmers (4 men; 19.6 ± 3.2 y) performed their usual training load (5 d/wk, approx. 21 h/wk). Last training session of each training day was immediately followed by 5 min of seated recovery, in randomized order, with CWI (15°C) or without (CON). Each morning before the first training session (6:30 AM) during the two experimental weeks, subjective ratings of well-being (eg, quality of sleep) were assessed and the R-R intervals were recorded for 5 min in supine position. A vagal-related index (ie, natural logarithm of the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals; Ln rMSSD) was calculated from the last 3-min segment.

Results:

Compared with CON, CWI effect on Ln rMSSD was rated as possibly beneficial on day 2 [7.0% (–3; 19)], likely beneficial on day 3 [20.0% (1.5; 43.5)], very likely beneficial on day 4 [30.4% (12.2; 51.6)] and likely beneficial on day 5 [24.1% (–0.4; 54.8)]. Cold water immersion was associated with a likely greater quality of sleep on day 2 [30.0% (2.7; 64.6)], very likely on day 3 [31.0% (5.0; 63.1)] and likely on day 4 [38.6% (11.4; 72.4)] when compared with CON.

Conclusion:

Five minutes of CWI following training can reduce the usual exercise-induced decrease in parasympathetic activity and is associated with improved rating of perceived sleep quality.

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Twan ten Haaf, Selma van Staveren, Erik Oudenhoven, Maria F. Piacentini, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands, Leo Koenderman, Hein A.M. Daanen, Carl Foster and Jos J. de Koning

Purpose:

To investigate whether monitoring of easily measurable stressors and symptoms can be used to distinguish early between acute fatigue (AF) and functional overreaching (FOR).

Methods:

The study included 30 subjects (11 female, 19 male; age 40.8 ± 10.8 y, VO2max 51.8 ± 6.3 mL · kg–1 · min–1) who participated in an 8-d cycling event over 1300 km with 18,500 climbing meters. Performance was measured before and after the event using a maximal incremental test. Subjects with decreased performance after the event were classified as FOR, others as AF. Mental and physical well-being, internal training load, resting heart rate, temperature, and mood were measured daily during the event. Differences between AF and FOR were analyzed using mixed-model ANOVAs. Logistic regression was used to determine the best predictors of FOR after 3 and 6 d of cycling.

Results:

Fifteen subjects were classified as FOR and 14 as AF (1 excluded). Although total group changes were observed during the event, no differences between AF and FOR were found for individual monitoring parameters. The combination of questionnaire-based changes in fatigue and readiness to train after 3 d cycling correctly predicted 78% of the subjects as AF or FOR (sensitivity = 79%, specificity = 77%).

Conclusions:

Monitoring changes in fatigue and readiness to train, using simple visual analog scales, can be used to identify subjects likely to become FOR after only 3 d of cycling. Hence, we encourage athlete support staff to monitor not only fatigue but also the subjective integrated mental and physical readiness to perform.

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Attila Szabo, Márk Bérdi, Ferenc Köteles and György Bárdos

The aim of this work was to examine the link between the physical-perceptual characteristics of nutritional supplements and their expected effectiveness in enhancing sport performance. Participants (n = 267) ranked nine images of fictive nutritional supplements, varying in shape, color, and route of administration (e.g., pill, powder, lotion, etc.), in ranked- order of expected effectiveness. They performed the task three times, 1) for strength, 2) endurance, and 3) for concentration. Results have revealed that the perceived effectiveness of the supplements was statistically significantly different for the three types of performances (p < .001). A significant interpersonal variability was observed in the ranking-order of the supplements. The findings reveal that perceptual characteristics of ‘believed to be nutritional supplements’, aimed at sport performance enhancement, influence their perceived effectiveness. Future inquiries in sport nutrition should examine the relationship between expected and experienced effectiveness of various nutritional supplements in enhancing sport performance.