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Margaret P. Sanders and Nicholas P. Murray

-defense program. In addition, perceived self-efficacy could be enhanced through a self-defense training program that utilizes an implicit versus explicit learning style. Developing a training environment that raises self-efficacy may lead to an increase in positive affect and subjective well-being for the

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Pamela Wicker and Paul Downward

well-being, the question of the direction of effect is not fully understood, that is, whether volunteering increases subjective well-being or whether happier people are more likely to volunteer. Strong associations have been established for volunteering ( Gimenez-Nadal & Molina, 2015 ), including sport

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Andrea Schlegel, Rebecca Pfitzner and Joerg Koenigstorfer

atmosphere in the city during event hosting positively ( Pfitzner & Koenigstorfer, 2016 ). The host city’s atmosphere—particularly liminoid elements that have demonstrable sociocultural effects ( Chalip, 2006 , 2018 )—may be one crucial factor that positively influences residents’ subjective well

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Edward MeAuley and Kerry S. Courneya

This paper documents the development and validation of the three-factor Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES), a measure of global psychological responses to the stimulus properties of exercise. Two of these factors correspond to the positive and negative poles associated with psychological health, Positive Weil-Being and Psychological Distress, whereas the third factor represents subjective indicants of Fatigue. The three-factor structure originally established by exploratory factor analysis using young adults was also supported in middle-aged exercising adults using confirmatory factor analytic techniques. Moreover, convergent and discriminant validity for the SEES subscales was demonstrated by examining relations with measures of affect regularly employed in exercise domain. The SEES may represent a useful starting point for more thoroughly examining exercise and subjective responses at the global level, and these dimensions of the scale may represent possible antecedents of specific affective responsivity.

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Jeeyoon Kim and Jeffrey D. James

managers and sport management researchers. The three major perspectives of well-being are subjective, eudaimonic, and social well-being; each provide insights on hedonism, personal growth, or social relations, respectively ( Kim, Kim, & Kim, 2017 ). This work is focused on subjective well-being (i

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Theresa E. Gildner, J. Josh Snodgrass, Clare Evans and Paul Kowal

participation in social or leisure activities, resulting in feelings of isolation ( Blazer, 2003 ). Although the mental health benefits of high physical function are relatively well studied in high-income countries, it is unclear whether specific functional measures are similarly linked with subjective well

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Shannon L. Mihalko and Edward McAuley

The purpose of the present investigation was to examine (a) the effects of upper body high-intensity strength training on muscular strength, activities of daily living (ADLs), and subjective well-being within an aging population, and (b) whether changes in strength were related to subsequent changes in subjective well-being and ADLs. The main effects of the training program were significant for all five individual muscle groups examined, indicating that subjects who participated in the strength program had greater increases in muscular strength than did controls. There was limited support for the contention that strength training enhances subjective well-being and ADLs in older adults. Strength gains were related to moderate reductions in negative affect, greater satisfaction with life, and higher ADLs. Findings are discussed in terms of design and measurement improvements, the need to focus research efforts on multiple components of fitness in relation to subjective well-being, and relations among strength and ADLs in the elderly.

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Johan Caudroit, Yannick Stephan, Aina Chalabaev and Christine Le Scanff

Objective:

The purpose of the current study was to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between subjective age and intention to engage in physical activity (PA) among active older adults. It was expected that subjective age would be positively related to PA intention because it is positively associated with self-efficacy.

Method:

A cross-sectional study was conducted with 170 older adults age 60–80 years (M = 66.10, SD = 4.78) who completed measures of subjective age, self-efficacy, behavioral intention, self-rated health, and past PA.

Results:

Bootstrap procedure revealed that self-efficacy partially mediated the positive relationship between feeling younger than one’s age and PA intention, while chronological age, self-rated health, and past PA were controlled.

Discussion:

These results emphasize the need to consider both subjective and objective components of age as correlates of social-cognitive determinants of health behavior.

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Aphrodite Stathi, Kenneth R. Fox and James McKenna

Using a qualitative approach, the dimensions of subjective well-being of active older adults were outlined and ways identified through which they might be influenced by participation in physical activities. One-to-one and group interviews were used to collect the data. Using cross-case analysis, 17 main themes were identified. The following main dimensions emerged: developmental, material, physical, mental, and social well-being. The findings indicated that physical activity influences all dimensions of the subjective well-being of older adults, with the exception of material well-being. Physical activity appears to contribute to the mental health of older adults through maintenance of a busy and active life, mental alertness, positive attitude toward life and avoidance of stress, negative function, and isolation. The complexity of subjective well-being and the multiple roles of physical activity stress the need to extend qualitative research to sedentary older adults and the institutionalized elderly to explore the relationship between well-being and physical activity in later life.

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Curt L. Lox, Edward MeAuley and R. Shawn Tucker

The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of regular exercise participation as an intervention for enhancing subjective well-being in an HIV-1 population. Specifically, this study investigated the effects of a 12-week exercise intervention on physical self-efficacy, positive and negative mood, and life satisfaction. Participants (N = 33) were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise training group (n = 11), a resistance weight-training group (n = 12), or a stretching/flexibility control group ( n = 10). Results indicated that both aerobic and weight-training exercise interventions enhanced physical self-efficacy, positive and negative mood, and satisfaction with life. Conversely, control participants experienced declines in each of these variables. Taken together, the findings seem to suggest that exercise may be one therapeutic modality capable of enhancing components of subjective well-being and should be considered a complimentary therapy for treating the psychological and emotional manifestations associated with a positive HIV-1 diagnosis.