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Phillip M. Bellinger, Cameron Ferguson, Tim Newans and Clare L. Minahan

performance, 7 – 9 practitioners have incorporated wellness questionnaires into their monitoring practices. 4 , 10 – 12 As such, it is thought that subjective wellness scales represent a time-efficient and noninvasive method for practitioners to gain information related to a player’s wellness status and his

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Margaret P. Sanders and Nicholas P. Murray

-defense program. In addition, perceived self-efficacy could be enhanced through a self-defense training program that utilizes an implicit versus explicit learning style. Developing a training environment that raises self-efficacy may lead to an increase in positive affect and subjective well-being for the

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Andrew D. Govus, Aaron Coutts, Rob Duffield, Andrew Murray and Hugh Fullagar

football codes to monitor changes in players’ training and match performance throughout a season. In addition to monitoring external load via GPS and accelerometers, monitoring subjective ratings of wellness and mood states before each training session may provide information about a player’s psychological

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Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles Warrington

’ recovery, both objective (internal and external) and subjective markers should be used. 13 , 14 There is currently a dearth of scientific research investigating the relationship between salivary cortisol, training load, and subjective markers of recovery in rugby union. Stress can be both psychological

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Gerald Barber and Charles T. Heise

Although not well validated, physicians frequently use subjective estimates of exercise ability to assess clinical status and therapeutic results. This study employed a standardized questionnaire and cardiopulmonary exercise test to compare the results of subjective estimates by 211 patients (mean age 13.9 yrs) with objective measurements of exercise ability. Questionnaire data correlated with measured maximal oxygen consumption. Individuals thought to be below average had a maximal oxygen consumption of 21±6 ml/kg/min. Those thought to have average fitness had a maximal oxygen consumption of 26±8 ml/kg/min, and those thought to be above average had a maximal oxygen consumption of 30±7 ml/kg/min. There was a great degree of overlap and scatter of these data, however, such that questionnaire data significantly overestimated exercise ability in 67% and underestimated it in 3% of the subjects. In only 30% of the subjects did the subjective estimate of exercise ability correspond with objectively measured exercise ability. It was concluded that subjective estimates are unreliable and should not be used in assessing the functional status of an individual patient, but subjective estimates may give some idea of objective capabilities in large population studies.

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Edward MeAuley and Kerry S. Courneya

This paper documents the development and validation of the three-factor Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES), a measure of global psychological responses to the stimulus properties of exercise. Two of these factors correspond to the positive and negative poles associated with psychological health, Positive Weil-Being and Psychological Distress, whereas the third factor represents subjective indicants of Fatigue. The three-factor structure originally established by exploratory factor analysis using young adults was also supported in middle-aged exercising adults using confirmatory factor analytic techniques. Moreover, convergent and discriminant validity for the SEES subscales was demonstrated by examining relations with measures of affect regularly employed in exercise domain. The SEES may represent a useful starting point for more thoroughly examining exercise and subjective responses at the global level, and these dimensions of the scale may represent possible antecedents of specific affective responsivity.

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Theresa E. Gildner, J. Josh Snodgrass, Clare Evans and Paul Kowal

participation in social or leisure activities, resulting in feelings of isolation ( Blazer, 2003 ). Although the mental health benefits of high physical function are relatively well studied in high-income countries, it is unclear whether specific functional measures are similarly linked with subjective well

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Iñigo Mujika

& Laursen, 2017 ). The aim of this case study was to report on the performance outcomes and subjective assessments of long-term (32 weeks) LCHF diet in a world-class, lacto-ovo vegetarian long-distance triathlete who had been suffering from GI problems in Ironman competition (e.g., malabsorption of

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Jill Borresen and Michael I. Lambert


To establish the relationship between a subjective (session rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) and 2 objective (training impulse [TRIMP]) and summated-heart-rate-zone (SHRZ) methods of quantifying training load and explain characteristics of the variance not accounted for in these relationships.


Thirty-three participants trained ad libitum for 2 wk, and their heart rate (HR) and RPE were recorded to calculate training load. Subjects were divided into groups based on whether the regression equations over- (OVER), under- (UNDER), or accurately predicted (ACCURATE) the relationship between objective and subjective methods.


A correlation of r = .76 (95% CI: .56 to .88) occurred between TRIMP and session-RPE training load. OVER spent a greater percentage of training time in zone 4 of SHRZ (ie, 80% to 90% HRmax) than UNDER (46% ± 8% vs 25% ± 10% [mean ± SD], P = .008). UNDER spent a greater percentage of training time in zone 1 of SHRZ (ie, 50% to 60% HRmax) than OVER (15% ± 8% vs 3% ± 3%, P = .005) and ACCURATE (5% ± 3%, P = .020) and more time in zone 2 of SHRZ (ie, 60% to 70%HRmax) than OVER (17% ± 6% vs 7% ± 6%, P = .039). A correlation of r = .84 (.70 to .92) occurred between SHRZ and session-RPE training load. OVER spent proportionally more time in Zone 4 than UNDER (45% ± 8% vs 25% ± 10%, P = .018). UNDER had a lower training HR than ACCURATE (132 ± 10 vs 148 ± 12 beats/min, P = .048) and spent more time in zone 1 than OVER (15% ± 8% vs 4% ± 3%, P = .013) and ACCURATE (5% ± 3%, P = .015).


The session-RPE method provides reasonably accurate assessments of training load compared with HR-based methods, but they deviate in accuracy when proportionally more time is spent training at low or high intensity.

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Johan Caudroit, Yannick Stephan, Aina Chalabaev and Christine Le Scanff


The purpose of the current study was to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between subjective age and intention to engage in physical activity (PA) among active older adults. It was expected that subjective age would be positively related to PA intention because it is positively associated with self-efficacy.


A cross-sectional study was conducted with 170 older adults age 60–80 years (M = 66.10, SD = 4.78) who completed measures of subjective age, self-efficacy, behavioral intention, self-rated health, and past PA.


Bootstrap procedure revealed that self-efficacy partially mediated the positive relationship between feeling younger than one’s age and PA intention, while chronological age, self-rated health, and past PA were controlled.


These results emphasize the need to consider both subjective and objective components of age as correlates of social-cognitive determinants of health behavior.