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Dariush Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Slahadin Ahmadi and Hassan Faraji

protective effects of omega-3 and BCAA against oxidative stress ( D’Antona et al., 2010 ; Yu et al., 2009 ), DNA damage ( Carvalho-Silva et al., 2017 ; Ra et al., 2013 ), and proinflammatory cytokines ( Tayyebi-Khosroshahi et al., 2012 ), it is possible that omega-3 and BCAA supplementation attenuates

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Duane Knudson

scholarship evaluation ( Hood & Wilson, 2001 ) of the three related fields of scholarship metrics: bibliometrics (library science), scientometrics (science), and informetrics (information science). This article addresses three issues in the use of bibliometrics to supplement research evaluations: the

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Mike A. Perko, Ronald D. Williams Jr. and Marion W. Evans

Sports supplements use is reality in the 21st century and the global sports world is enmeshed daily in media coverage and debate. Traditionally much of the focus has been on male athletes but the tide is shifting toward the rapidly evolving culture of the female athlete. Little is known about the use rates, reasons, and effects of sports performance supplements among females. This article examines female athletes and sports supplements with emphasis on historical influence, realities for the female athlete, risks involved in performance enhancement, and future recommendations.

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Farnoosh Mafi, Soheil Biglari, Alireza Ghardashi Afousi and Abbas Ali Gaeini

muscle growth factors—for example, epicatechin supplement, which is a part of the chemical family of flavonoids and is abundantly present in dark chocolate and green tea. Recent studies showed that these molecules can positively affect muscle growth factors. In fact, by stimulating the concentration of

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Bryan Raudenbush and Brian Meyer

Body image satisfaction was measured among college male athletes participating in track/cross-country, soccer, basketball, swimming, and lacrosse through the use of figure drawings varying in level of muscularity. All the athletes chose significantly different figure drawings to best represent their actual physique, ideal physique, and the physique they believed was most attractive to the opposite sex. For each sport, athletes’ actual physique was less muscular than both their ideal physique and the one they thought was attractive to the opposite sex. Soccer and lacrosse players chose an ideal physique larger than the one they thought was attractive to the opposite sex, while swimmers chose an ideal physique smaller than the one they thought was attractive to the opposite sex. Lacrosse players wanted to gain the most muscle. Those athletes who used muscle mass/weight-gain supplements spent more time per week in weight training and viewed their actual physique as larger than did athletes who did not use weight-gain supplements. The present results further reveal the desire of athletes to gain muscle, possibly to the extent of abusing weight-gain supplements and thus providing the foundation for faulty body image or dysfunctional eating.

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Michael P. Corcoran, Miriam E. Nelson, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Kieran F. Reid, Dylan Kirn, Roger A. Fielding, Kenneth K.H. Chui and Sara C. Folta

( Pahor et al., 2014 ). There is also evidence that appropriately timed protein intake along with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] supplementation is important for exercise recovery and thus may contribute to improved physical function for this population ( Chale et al., 2013 ; Moreira-Pfrimer, Pedrosa

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Amy L. Morgan, Jody D. Ellison, Margaret P. Chandler and Wojtek J. Ckodzko-Zajko

This study examined the supplemental benefits of strength training in aerobically active postmenopausal women. Eighteen women (61-71 yrs) who had been participating in regular aerobic exercise for the preceding 8 months were randomly assigned to control (n = 9) and experimental (n = 9) groups. Both groups continued aerobic exercise 3 times a week for the 8-week training period. In addition, the experimental group performed 3 sets (8–12 repetitions) of standard knee extension and flexion exercises at 80% of their 1-repetition maximum (1-RM). In the experimental group, highly significant increases in knee flexion and extension strength were observed. No changes in strength were noted in the control subjects. There were no significant changes in body composition for either group. The data suggest that aerobically active older individuals can greatly increase strength with resistance training, which is consistent with recent recommendations that resistance training should be used to supplement aerobic exercise.

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Jason A. Schisler and C. David Ianuzzo

Purpose:

This study determined if recreational type of endurance exercise is limited by a short-term fast, such as an overnight fast or benefited by a carbohydrate supplement prior to and during endurance exercise.

Methods:

Six individuals ran at 70% VO2max for 90 min under three dietary conditions (fed, fasted for 16 to 18 h, fasted plus CHO).

Results:

RPE, RER, BG (blood glucose), and La (lactate) were similar between conditions throughout 90 min of exercise. FFA was higher (P ≤ 0.05) only in the fed and fasted groups after exercise.

Conclusion:

The psychosomatic sensation, physiologic, and metabolic data all indicated that endurance exercise for up to 90 min for fit individuals is not limited by a short-term fast or enhanced by carbohydrate supplementation. These findings are of interest to persons who exercise to maintain and enhance health and are not concerned with elite performance.

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Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Michael A. Pickering, Nicole Glenn, Sandra L. Doze, Melissa L. Reinbold-Matthews, Laura J. McLeod, David C. W. Lau, Gordon H. Fick, Steven T. Johnson and Laura Flaman

Background:

Physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This pilot investigation explores the effects of a standard diabetes education program compared with a supplemental PA intervention on diabetes-related health outcomes.

Methods:

Using a prospective 2-armed design, 96 adults with T2DM were randomly assigned to either standard care (diabetes education program; n = 49) or standard care supplemented with an 8-week, individualized-counseling and community-based PA component (n = 47). Measurements were taken at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Primary outcomes were changes in PA (self-report) and HbA1c. Between group changes were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and changes over time using repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results:

In comparison with standard care, the supplemental group demonstrated an increase in PA (Ps < 0.01) and cardiorespiratory fitness (Ps < 0.05) from baseline to all follow-up time-points. HbA1c levels declined (P < .05) from baseline to all time points in the standard care group. Reduction in cholesterol-ratio (P < .01), increase in HDL (P < .05), and reductions in blood pressure, resting heart rate and BMI (approaching statistical significance Ps < 0.10) were also reported for both groups.

Conclusions:

PA counseling in addition to standard care is effective for promoting PA behavior change and positive health-related outcomes among individuals with T2DM.

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Tarra Rawdon, Rick L. Sharp, Mack Shelley and Jerry R. Thomas

This paper is a meta-analysis of the role of nutritional supplements in strength training focusing on the effects of placebo treatments. We address specifically the results from meta-analysis of 334 fi.ndings from 37 studies of the effect of nutritional supplements and physical fitness interventions on strength, stamina, and endurance outcomes, controlling for main effects of the group on which the results were obtained (placebo, treatment, control, for pretest or posttest), with covariates for age, gender, randomization, double-blind procedures, study duration, training load, training frequency, and training status. Finding show that there are significant placebo effects accounting for a substantial portion of the effect size typically associated with treatment interventions. In addition to produce the best evaluations of treatment effects, both control and placebo groups should be included in a double-blind research design using participants who are well familiarized with the study procedures.