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Duane Knudson

scholarship evaluation ( Hood & Wilson, 2001 ) of the three related fields of scholarship metrics: bibliometrics (library science), scientometrics (science), and informetrics (information science). This article addresses three issues in the use of bibliometrics to supplement research evaluations: the

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Mike A. Perko, Ronald D. Williams Jr. and Marion W. Evans

Sports supplements use is reality in the 21st century and the global sports world is enmeshed daily in media coverage and debate. Traditionally much of the focus has been on male athletes but the tide is shifting toward the rapidly evolving culture of the female athlete. Little is known about the use rates, reasons, and effects of sports performance supplements among females. This article examines female athletes and sports supplements with emphasis on historical influence, realities for the female athlete, risks involved in performance enhancement, and future recommendations.

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Michael Atkinson

Canadian men flock to gyms to enlarge, reshape, and sculpt their bodies. Fitness centers, health-food stores, muscle magazines, and Internet sites profit by aggressively selling “sports supplements” to a wide range of exercising men. Once associated with only the hardcore factions of male bodybuilders (Klein, 1995), designer protein powders, creatine products, energy bars, ephedrine, amino acids, diuretics, and growth hormones such as androstenedione are generically marketed to men as health and lifestyle-improving aids. This paper explores how a select group of Canadian men connect the consumption of sports supplements to the pursuit of “established” masculinity. I collected ethnographic data from 57 recreational athletes in Canada and interpreted the data through the lens of figurational sociology. Analytic attention is thus given to how contemporary discourses and practices of supplementation are underscored by middle-class understandings of masculine bodies in a time of perceived “gender crisis” in Canada.

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Tarra Rawdon, Rick L. Sharp, Mack Shelley and Jerry R. Thomas

This paper is a meta-analysis of the role of nutritional supplements in strength training focusing on the effects of placebo treatments. We address specifically the results from meta-analysis of 334 fi.ndings from 37 studies of the effect of nutritional supplements and physical fitness interventions on strength, stamina, and endurance outcomes, controlling for main effects of the group on which the results were obtained (placebo, treatment, control, for pretest or posttest), with covariates for age, gender, randomization, double-blind procedures, study duration, training load, training frequency, and training status. Finding show that there are significant placebo effects accounting for a substantial portion of the effect size typically associated with treatment interventions. In addition to produce the best evaluations of treatment effects, both control and placebo groups should be included in a double-blind research design using participants who are well familiarized with the study procedures.

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Peggy Roussel, Jean Griffet and Pascal Duret

The present article examines the transformations that have taken place in female bodybuilding in France from a sociological point of view. Adopting a comprehensive approach, we describe the contextual influences thought to be responsible for the decline of female bodybuilding. Starting from the premise that the extremely muscular female bodies seen in women’s bodybuilding are the reason for the downfall of the discipline, the analysis focuses on three subcultural influences: the appearance of Beverly Francis on the competition scene, the aesthetic criteria favored by the federations, and the use of nutritional supplements and doping substances.

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Bahar Tajrobehkar

Women’s bodybuilding manifestly challenges hegemonic understandings of the female body as weak, fragile, and limited. Because it has acquired characteristics that are traditionally deemed masculine, the muscular woman is thought to be in need of having her femininity “restored”. Perhaps for this reason, in bodybuilding competitions, female competitors are required to display femininity and implied heterosexuality on stage through their attitude, gestures, posing, make-up, hairstyle, and adornments. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of competitors in the Bikini category to understand the ways in which they perceive and negotiate the expectations of idealized femininity within bodybuilding competitions. Semi-structured interviews, supplemented with ethnographic fieldwork, were conducted with nine female bodybuilding competitors. The data gathered indicated the contradictory views that some female bodybuilders hold of female muscularity and of femininity. The participants were able to negotiate the judging criteria, albeit at times reluctantly and with frequent expressions of criticism and disapproval.

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James Curtis, William McTeer and Philip White

This paper reports on tests of relationships between participation in organized sport as a youth and earned income in adulthood. The data are drawn from a sample survey of adult Canadians. The results, both before and after appropriate controls, show that those who participated in organized sport as a youth tended to have higher annual earned incomes as adults than those who did not participate in this way. The relationships are stronger and more consistent for males than females across social subgroups defined by education level completed. Further supplemental analyses compare the explanatory import of youth sport participation and other forms of voluntary community involvement as a youth. Also presented are interpretations of the results, which emphasize the “cultural and social capital” and “physical capital” outcomes of involvement in youth sport activity.

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Eldon E. Snyder and Dean A. Purdy

Much of the research on athletic officials has focused on their psychological traits. Researchers have considered the officials’ social world, as well as the emergent and processual nature of their activities in game situations. The present research provides an analysis of data on referees as they enforce rules and norms within the fluid context of basketball games. Quantitative data were collected from a survey of 689 high school basketball officials; additionally, qualitative data were gathered from the open-ended portions of the survey instrument as well as from participant observation and discussions with other officials. The primary conceptual areas generated from the research included control of the game, supplementation of rules, and the communication of decisions by officials. The findings are related to other areas of social control in which the rule violator must be closely supervised by the rule enforcer.