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Douglas P. Jowdy and Dorothy V. Harris

The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if the magnitude of muscular activity concomitant with mental imagery is a function of motor skill level. Male undergraduates (N=38) between 18 and 24 years of age were assigned to either a high skilled (n=23) or low skilled (n = 15) group of jugglers. All subjects completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ) (Hall & Pongrac, 1983) and imagined themselves juggling for eight 15-second trials while the amplitude of muscular activity was measured by surface electromyography. There was a significant increase in muscular activity during mental imagery across all subjects (p<.001), but the difference between the high and low skilled groups was not significant. This lack of difference may suggest that the differential effects of imagery based upon skill level are not due to the neuromuscular activation during imagery.

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Christopher A. Bailey, Maxana Weiss and Julie N. Côté

-density surface electromyography during muscle fatigue . Entropy, 19 ( 12 ), 697 . doi: 10.3390/e19120697 Boettcher , C.E. , Ginn , K.A. , & Cathers , I. ( 2008 ). Standard maximum isometric voluntary contraction tests for normalizing shoulder muscle EMG . Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 26 ( 12

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Sommer Christie, Maurizio Bertollo and Penny Werthner

over physiological and neurological processes ( Schwartz & Andrasik, 2017 ). Neurological measures include electroencephalography (EEG), and physiological measures include surface electromyography, electrodermal activity, peripheral body temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate. Recently, NFT

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Wai-Ting Lo, Kit-Lun Yick, Newman Lau, Lok-Tung Tse, Sun-Pui Ng and Joanne Yip

Sport, 8 , 75 – 81 . doi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2006.12.002 10.1016/j.ptsp.2006.12.002 Cram , J. ( 1998 ). Introduction to surface electromyography . Maryland, MD : Aspen Publishers . Cromwell , R.L. , & Newton , R.A. ( 2004 ). Relationship between balance and gait stability in healthy older adults

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Astrid C.J. Balemans, Han Houdijk, Gilbert R. Koelewijn, Marjolein Piek, Frank Tubbing, Anne Visser-Meily and Olaf Verschuren

volume analyzer was calibrated with a 3-L calibration pump. Muscle Activity Muscle activity was recorded using a wireless bipolar surface electromyography (EMG) system (eMotion Faros; Mega Electronics Ltd, Kuopio, Finland). Surface EMG is a valid measure for muscle activity. 31 The skin was shaved and

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Alison R. Oates, Aaron Awdhan, Catherine Arnold, Joyce Fung and Joel L. Lanovaz

four known weights each placed at five locations along the rail. Surface electromyography (EMG) measured bilateral muscle activity in the tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SOL), and gluteus medius (GMED). AgCl electrode pairs were placed over muscle bellies, and electrode placement was confirmed with

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Garrett M. Hester, Zachary K. Pope, Mitchel A. Magrini, Ryan J. Colquhoun, Alejandra Barrera-Curiel, Carlos A. Estrada, Alex A. Olmos and Jason M. DeFreitas

, but whether these adaptations are maintained in the long term cannot be determined. With regard to the cross education aspect of the study, optimally surface electromyography should have been used to ensure the contralateral leg remained relaxed during training rather than verbal instruction alone