Individuals with autism often lack motivation to engage in sustained physical activity. Three adolescents with severe autism participated in a 16-week program and each regularly completed 30 min of cycling at the end of program. This study investigated the effect of a self-regulation instructional strategy on sustained cycling, which included self-monitoring, goal setting, and self-reinforcement. Of particular interest was the development of self-efficacy during the physical activity as a mediator of goal setting. A multiple baseline changing criterion design established the effectiveness of the intervention. The results suggest that self-regulation interventions can promote sustained participation in physical activity for adolescents with severe autism.
Teri Todd, Greg Reid and Lynn Butler-Kisber
Byron Lai, Eunbi Lee, Mayumi Wagatsuma, Georgia Frey, Heidi Stanish, Taeyou Jung and James H. Rimmer
youth periods provide health care professionals with an opportunity to promote health-enhancing physical activity behavior that can likely be sustained throughout the adult lifespan. Identifying effective physical activity approaches before and during this transitional period is critical, as the
Alison B. Pritchard Orr, Kathy Keiver, Chris P. Bertram and Sterling Clarren
Test (CCTT). Successful performance on the CCTT requires utilization of a variety of EF skills, such as sustained attention, perceptual tracking, sequencing, psychomotor speed, and cognitive flexibility ( Llorente et al., 2003 ). Thus, the CCTT provides a measure of overall EF ability rather than a
Donna L. Goodwin and Amanda Ebert
may be actively disavowed; Scully, 2010 ). Ableism, as a network of beliefs and practices, constructs bodies as impaired and the Other who is different, undesirable, and in need of repair or modification ( Campbell, 2001 , 2008 , 2009 ; Hodge & Runswick-Cole, 2013 ). It creates and sustains
Patricia E. Longmuir and Roy J. Shephard
The Arm CAFT is a simple submaximal arm ergometer test for subjects with mobility disabilities, designed to match the Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (CAFT) in both administration and interpretation. It is here evaluated relative to direct arm ergometer measurements of peak oxygen intake in 41 men and women with mobility disabilities, aged 20-60, who were attending an “integrated” sports facility. Peak oxygen intake was predicted using the original CAFT equation, but the oxygen cost of arm ergometer test stages was substituted and predictions were scaled downward by 70/100 to allow for the lower peak aerobic power of the upper limbs. In 16 subjects who maintained cranking cadence, predictions were reliable over 1 week, with a small increase of score at the second test. Although the Arm CAFT protocol is reliable and free of bias, it has only a limited validity, and only a minority of the stronger individuals with mobility disabilities can sustain the required cranking rhythm.
Dan W. Kennedy
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the Leisure Activities Blank (McKechnie, 1975) with males who had sustained spinal cord injuries. It was hypothesized that after treatment and time for adjustment, persons with spinal cord injuries would have higher scores on the Leisure Activities Blank (LAB) than they would within 3 months of hospitalization. Also, the male profile derived from persons with spinal cord injuries was compared with the normative male profile established by McKechnie (1975). The t-tests between means of pretest and posttest scores on the Future categories (male profile) of the LAB revealed no significant differences. However, significant differences (p < .01) were found between the nondisabled and disabled groups in 6 of the 8 categories on the Future LAB. No differences were found between the two disability groups (paraplegics and quadriplegics) on the Leisure Activities Blank.
This paper aims to foster a discussion about the social construction of disability within adapted physical activity. Social construction of disability refers to the social history of disability and the social contexts that both enable and disable individuals who negotiate these contexts. Statistics and technology are introduced in this paper to illustrate that “the normal,” “the abnormal,” “the natural,” “the unnatural,” “ability,” and “disability” have emerged historically and to demonstrate that these concepts are implicated in social contexts. Work in the history of statistics is drawn upon to establish that the normal is a fairly recent notion in the English language. It is argued that statistics, as a normalization discourse, sustain artificial demarcations between ability and disability and the normal and abnormal when used by researchers and practitioners. To expose assumptions about natural ability, technological-assisted performance for participants with or without disabilities in physical activity and sport are addressed.
Yee-Pay Wuang, Chih-Chung Wang, Mao-Hsiung Huang and Chwen-Yng Su
This study investigated the effectiveness of a 20-week Simulated Developmental Horse-Riding Program (SDHRP) by using an innovative exercise equipment (Joba®) on the motor proficiency and sensory integrative functions in 60 children with autism (age: 6 years, 5 months to 8 years, 9 months). In the first phase of 20 weeks, 30 children received the SDHRP in addition to their regular occupational therapy while another 30 children received regular occupational therapy only. The arrangement was reversed in the second phase of another 20 weeks. Children with autism in this study showed improved motor proficiency and sensory integrative functions after 20-week SDHRP (p < .01). In addition, the therapeutic effect appeared to be sustained for at least 24 weeks (6 months).
Rong-Ju Cherng, Hua-Fang Liao, Henry W.C. Leung and Ai-Wen Hwang
This study investigated the effectiveness of a16-week therapeutic horseback riding (THR) program on the gross motor function measures (GMFM) and the muscle tone of hip adductors in 14 children with spastic cerebral palsy (age: 3 years, one month to 11 years, 5 months). In the first phase of 16 weeks, nine of the children received the THR in addition to their regular treatment, while the rest received their regular treatment only. In the second phase (also 16 weeks), the arrangements were reversed. After THR, some of the children improved significantly in the GMFM E (walk/run/jump) score and the total score. The effect appears to be sustained for at least 16 weeks. No effect of THR on muscle tone was noted. We conclude that THR may be beneficial for some children with spastic cerebral palsy.
Emma V. Richardson, Brett Smith and Anthony Papathomas
Using a dialogical narrative approach, we explored how disabled people made sense of their gym experiences as part of a peer group. Interviews were conducted with 18 disabled people (10 men and 8 women, aged 23–60) who had experience exercising in the gym as part of a group. Data were rigorously analyzed using a dialogical narrative analysis. Within their peer group, participants crafted a collective story that they used to resist disablism in the gym. The dialogical components of the collective story functioned to (a) validate participants’ experiences of oppression in the gym, (b) forge an unspoken understanding with peers, (c) craft a more affirmative identity, and (d) instill a sense of empowerment in participants so that they can tell their own story. This study extends knowledge in the field of exercise and disability by showing that despite the oppression disabled people experienced in the gym, they can create a collective story, which is useful for helping to promote and sustain exercise in this space.