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Simone D. Henkin, Paulo L. Sehl and Flavia Meyer

Because swimmers train in an aquatic environment, they probably do not need to sweat as much as runners who train on land and, therefore, should not develop the same magnitude of sweating adaptations.

Purpose:

To compare sweat rate and electrolyte concentration in swimmers, runners and nonathletes.

Methods:

Ten swimmers (22.9 ± 3.1 years old), 10 runners (25 ± 2.9 y) and 10 nonathletes (26.5 ± 2.2 y) cycled in the heat (32°C and 40% relative humidity) for 30 min at similar intensity relative to their maximal cycle test. Sweat volume was calculated from the difference of their body mass before and after cycling, since they were not allowed to drink. Sweat was collected from the scapula using absorbent patch placed on the skin that was cleaned with distilled water. After cycling, the patch was transferred to syringe and the sample was obtained when squeezing it to a tube. Concentration of sodium ([Na+]), chloride ([Cl–]) and potassium ([K+]) were analyzed using an ion selector analyzer.

Results:

The sweat volume, in liters, of swimmers (0.9 ± 0.3) was lower (P < .05) than that of runners (1.5 ± 0.2) and similar to that of nonathletes (0.6 ± 0.2). [Na+] and [Cl-], in mmolL-1, of swimmers (65.4 ± 5.5 and 61.2 ± 81), and nonathletes (67.3 ± 8.5 and 58.3 ± 9.6) were higher (P < .05) than those of runners (45.2 ± 7.5 and 38.9 ± 8.3). [K+] was similar among groups.

Conclusions:

The lower sweat volume and higher sweat [Na+] and [Cl-] of swimmers, as compared with runners, indicate that training in the water does not cause the same magnitude of sweating adaptations.

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Michael F. Bergeron

A 17-year-old, nationally ranked, male tennis player (AH) had been experiencing heat cramps during tennis match play. His medical history and previous physical exams were unremarkable, and his in-office blood chemistry profiles were normal. On-court evaluation and an analysis of a 3-day dietary record revealed that AH's sweat rate was extensive (2.5 L · hr−1) and that his potential daily on-court sweat sodium losses (89.8 mmol · hr of play') could readily exceed his average daily intake of sodium (87.0-174.0 mmol · day−1). The combined effects of excessive and repeated fluid and sodium losses likely predisposed AH to heat cramps during play. AH was ultimately able to eliminate heat cramps during competition and training by increasing his daily dietary intake of sodium.

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Carl J. Petersen, Marc R. Portus, David B. Pyne, Brian T. Dawson, Matthew N. Cramer and Aaron D. Kellett

Cricketers are often required to play in hot/humid environments with little time for heat adaptation.

Purpose:

We examined the effect of a short 4-d hot/humid acclimation program on classical physiological indicators of heat acclimation.

Methods:

Male club cricketers were randomly assigned into heat acclimation (ACC, n = 6) or control (CON, n = 6) groups, and 30 min treadmill trials (10 km/h, approx. 30 ± 1.0°C, approx. 65 ± 6% RH) were conducted at baseline and postacclimation. The ACC group completed four high intensity (30–45 min) acclimation sessions on consecutive days at approx. 30°C and approx. 60% RH using a cycle ergometer. The CON group completed matched cycle training in moderate conditions (approx. 20°C, approx. 60% RH). Physiological measures during each treadmill trial included heart rate; core and skin temperatures; sweat Na+, K+ and Cl– electrolyte concentrations; and sweat rate.

Results:

After the 4-d intervention, the ACC group had a moderate decrease of -11 (3 to -24 beats/min; mean and 90% CI) in the 30 min heart rate, and moderate to large reductions in electrolyte concentrations: Na+ -18% (–4 to -31%), K+ -15% (0 to -27%), Cl– -22% (-9 to -33%). Both ACC and CON groups had only trivial changes in core and skin temperatures and sweat rate. After the intervention, both groups perceived they were more comfortable exercising in the heat. The 4-d heat intervention had no detrimental effect on performance.

Conclusions:

Four 30–45 min high intensity cycle sessions in hot/humid conditions elicited partial heat acclimation. For full heat acclimation a more intensive and extensive (and modality-specific) acclimation intervention is needed for cricket players.

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John R. Stofan, Kris L. Osterberg, Craig A. Horswill, Magie Lacambra, E. Randy Eichner, Scott A. Anderson and Robert Murray

The authors measured 24-h fluid-turnover (FTO) rate during 6 d of preseason training in U.S. college football players. Players, training (T, n = 9, full gear and contact drills) and reference (R, n = 4, conditioning without gear or contact), ingested a deuterium oxide (D2O) dose and provided urine samples every 24 h for analysis of D2O. During one ~2.3–h practice (wet-bulb globe temperature 24.6 °C), body-mass change, urine production, and voluntary fluid intake were measured to calculate gross sweat loss (GSL). Average FTO was 10.3 ± 2.2 L/d for T and 7.0 ± 1.0 L/d for R. GSL was 3.4 ± 1.5 L for T and 1.7 ± 1.3 for R (P > 0.05). By Day 6, body mass decreased significantly in T (–2.4 ± 1.3 kg, P < 0.05) but not in R (0.38 ± 0.95 kg). With preseason training under moderate environmental stress, football players had high FTO and sweat rates, which might have contributed to a loss of body mass during preseason football training.

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Heather M. Logan-Sprenger, George J. F. Heigenhauser, Graham L. Jones and Lawrence L. Spriet

This study investigated the effects of progressive mild dehydration during cycling on whole-body substrate oxidation and skeletal-muscle metabolism in recreationally active men. Subjects (N = 9) cycled for 120 min at ~65% peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak 22.7 °C, 32% relative humidity) with water to replace sweat losses (HYD) or without fluid (DEH). Blood samples were taken at rest and every 20 min, and muscle biopsies were taken at rest and at 40, 80, and 120 min of exercise. Subjects lost 0.8%, 1.8%, and 2.7% body mass (BM) after 40, 80, and 120 min of cycling in the DEH trial while sweat loss was not significantly different between trials. Heart rate was greater in the DEH trial from 60 to 120 min, and core temperature was greater from 75 to 120 min. Rating of perceived exertion was higher in the DEH trial from 30 to 120 min. There were no differences in VO2, respiratory-exchange ratio, total carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (HYD 312 ± 9 vs. DEH 307 ± 10 g), or sweat rate between trials. Blood lactate was significantly greater in the DEH trial from 20 to 120 min with no difference in plasma free fatty acids or epinephrine. Glycogenolysis was significantly greater (24%) over the entire DEH vs. HYD trial (433 ± 44 vs. 349 ± 27 mmol · kg−1 · dm−1). In conclusion, dehydration of <2% BM elevated physiological parameters and perceived exertion, as well as muscle glycogenolysis, during exercise without affecting whole-body CHO oxidation.

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Keith C. DeRuisseau, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Emily M. Haymes and Regina G. Sharp

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 2-hour exercise bout on sweat iron and zinc concentrations and losses in males and females. Nine male and 9 female recreational cyclists exercised at ~50% V̇O2peak in a temperate environment (Ta = 23 °C, RH = 51%). Sweat samples were collected for 15 min during each of four 30-min exercise bouts. No significant differences were observed between males’ and females’ sweat iron or zinc concentrations or losses. Sweat iron concentrations decreased significantly between 60 and 90 min of exercise. Sweating rates increased significantly from 30 to 60 min and remained constant during the second hour. Sweat iron losses were significantly lower during the second hour (0.042 mg/m2/h) than the first hour of exercise (0.060 mg/m2/h). Sweat zinc concentrations also decreased significantly over the 2-hour exercise bout. Dietary intakes of iron and zinc were not significantly correlated to sweat iron and zinc concentrations. Sweat iron and zinc losses during 2 hours of exercise represented 3% and 1% of the RDA for iron and 9% and 8% of the RDA for zinc for men and women, respectively. These results suggest a possible iron conservation that prevents excessive iron loss during prolonged exercise.

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Martin J. Turner and Alberto P. Avolio

International guidelines suggest limiting sodium intake to 86–100 mmol/day, but average intake exceeds 150 mmol/day. Participants in physical activities are, however, advised to increase sodium intake before, during and after exercise to ensure euhydration, replace sodium lost in sweat, speed rehydration and maintain performance. A similar range of health benefits is attributable to exercise and to reduction in sodium intake, including reductions in blood pressure (BP) and the increase of BP with age, reduced risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, and reduced risk of osteoporosis and dementia. Sweat typically contains 40–60 mmol/L of sodium, leading to approximately 20–90 mmol of sodium lost in one exercise session with sweat rates of 0.5–1.5 L/h. Reductions in sodium intake of 20–90 mmol/day have been associated with substantial health benefits. Homeostatic systems reduce sweat sodium as low as 3–10 mmol/L to prevent excessive sodium loss. “Salty sweaters” may be individuals with high sodium intake who perpetuate their “salty sweat” condition by continual replacement of sodium excreted in sweat. Studies of prolonged high intensity exercise in hot environments suggest that sodium supplementation is not necessary to prevent hyponatremia during exercise lasting up to 6 hr. We examine the novel hypothesis that sodium excreted in sweat during physical activity offsets a significant fraction of excess dietary sodium, and hence may contribute part of the health benefits of exercise. Replacing sodium lost in sweat during exercise may improve physical performance, but may attenuate the long-term health benefits of exercise.

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Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda, Jorge Cancino, Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo, Cristian Pérez-Luco, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Juan Del Coso and Hermann Zbinden-Foncea

sodium lost in one exercise session ( Turner & Avolio, 2016 ). The mechanisms behind the interindividual variability of sweat electrolyte loss and concentration are not completely understood. However, the sweat rate ( Buono et al., 2007 ), concentration of aldosterone ( Yoshida et al., 2006 ) and

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Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Justin Landers and Karen Elizabeth Wallman

This study examined the effects of precooling via ice ingestion on female cycling performance in hot, humid conditions. Ten female endurance athletes, mean age (28 ± 6 y), height (167.6 ± 6.5 cm) and body-mass (68.0 ± 11.5 kg) participated in the study. Participants completed an 800 kJ cycle time-trial in hot, humid conditions (34.9 ± 0.3 °C, 49.8 ± 3.5% RH). This was preceded by the consumption of 7 g∙kg-1 of crushed ice (ICE) or water (CON). There was no difference in performance time (CON 3851 ± 449 s; ICE 3767 ± 465 s), oxygen consumption (CON 41.6 ± 7.0 ml∙kg∙min-1; ICE 42.4 ± 6.0 ml∙kg∙min-1) or respiratory exchange ratio (CON 0.88 ± 0.05; ICE 0.90 ± 0.06) between conditions (p > .05, d < 0.5). Core and skin temperature following the precooling period were lower in ICE (Tc 36.4 ± 0.4 °C; Tsk 31.6 ± 1.2 °C) compared with CON (Tc 37.1 ± 0.4 °C; Tsk 32.4 ± 0.7 °C) and remained lower until the 100 kJ mark of the cycle time-trial (p < .05, d > 1.0). Sweat onset occurred earlier in CON (228 ± 113 s) compared with ICE (411 ± 156 s) (p < .05, d = 1.63). Mean thermal sensation (CON 1.8 ± 2.0; ICE 1.2 ± 2.5, p < .05, d = 2.51), perceived exertion (CON 15.3 ± 2.9; ICE 14.9 ± 3.0, p < .05, d = 0.38) and perceived thirst (CON 5.6 ± 2.2; ICE 4.6 ± 2.4, p < .05, d = 0.98) were lower in ICE compared with CON. Crushed ice ingestion did not improve cycling performance in females, although perceptual responses were reduced.

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Alexander S.D. Gamble, Jessica L. Bigg, Tyler F. Vermeulen, Stephanie M. Boville, Greg S. Eskedjian, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Jamie Whitfield, Matthew S. Palmer and Lawrence L. Spriet

∼2% of their body mass (BM) through sweating ( Baker et al., 2007 ; Dougherty et al., 2006 ; Edwards et al., 2007 ; Linseman et al., 2014 ; McGregor et al., 1999 ; Owen et al., 2013 ; Palmer et al., 2017 ). The equipment worn by ice hockey players becomes problematic as sweat rates increase to