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Robert Chen and Kaviraja Udupa

Several techniques that involve transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to measure brain plasticity noninvasively in humans. These include paired-associative stimulation (PAS), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and theta burst stimulation (TBS). Some of these techniques are based the principle of use dependent plasticity or are designed to mimic protocols used to induce long-term potentiation or depression in animal studies. These studies have been applied to certain neurological and psychiatric disorders to investigate their pathophysiology. For example, PAS induced plasticity is enhanced in dystonia and stroke but is reduced in Huntington’s disease and schizophrenia. Furthermore, TMS may be used to modulate brain plasticity and has therapeutic potential in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, dystonia and depression.

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Janelle Prince, Eric Schussler, and Ryan McCann

): 356 – 362 .PubMed ID: 15079864 doi:10.1002/jnr.20077 15. Farmer J , Zhao X , Van Praag H , Wodtke K , Gage F , Christie B . Effects of voluntary exercise on synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the dentate gyrus of adult male Sprague–Dawley rats in vivo . Neuroscience . 2004

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Marcin Grzes´kowiak, Zbigniew Krawiecki, Wojciech Łabe˛dz´, Jacek Kaczmarczyk, Jacek Lewandowski, and Dawid Łochyn´ski

shown that with proper therapeutic approach it is possible to improve lumbopelvic spine control (normalize the superficial multifidus activation) without pain generation in patients with CLBP, 34 presumably through synaptic plasticity (rebalancing the synaptic excitability back to physiological ranges

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Chung-Ju Huang, Hsin-Yu Tu, Ming-Chun Hsueh, Yi-Hsiang Chiu, Mei-Yao Huang, and Chien-Chih Chou

: 14972600 10.1016/j.jecp.2003.12.002 Vaynman , S. , Ying , Z. , & Gomez-Pinilla , F. ( 2004 ). Hippocampal BDNF mediates the efficacy of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition . European Journal of Neuroscience, 20 ( 10 ), 2580 – 2590 . PubMed ID: 15548201 doi:10.1111/j.1460

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Leah S. Goudy, Brandon Rhett Rigby, Lisa Silliman-French, and Kevin A. Becker

repetitive upper body motor tasks following exercise on a treadmill or cycle ( Frazzitta et al., 2012 ; Ridgel, Muller, Kim, Fickes, & Mera, 2011 ). This may, in turn, allow for improvements in cognitive function through the release of a brain-derived neurotrophic factor that promotes synaptic plasticity

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Alison B. Pritchard Orr, Kathy Keiver, Chris P. Bertram, and Sterling Clarren

– 201 . PubMed ID: 20375733 doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181d5a4e2 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181d5a4e2 Christie , B.R. , Eadie , B. , Kannangara , T. , Robillard , J. , Shin , J. , & Titterness , A. ( 2008 ). Exercising our brains: How physical activity impacts synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus