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Laura Žlibinaitė, Rima Solianik, Daiva Vizbaraitė, Dalia Mickevičienė, and Albertas Skurvydas

hippocampus after a combined CR and exercise intervention; the authors also found that acute stress can upregulate BDNF in the hippocampus. 40 It is well established that BDNF improves cognition through its ability to enhance neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. 15 , 16 As expected, we observed that

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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher, and Naiman A. Khan

mechanisms by which obesity contributes to cognitive impairment are unclear, evidence from neuroimaging studies indicates that increased adiposity is associated with alterations in brain structure and function that typically accompany cognitive deficits. These include reduced synaptic plasticity, 8 reduced

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Carolina Menezes Fiorelli, Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, Lucas Simieli, Fabiana Araújo Silva, Bianca Fernandes, Gustavo Christofoletti, and Fabio Augusto Barbieri

exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition . Eur J Neurosci . 2004 ; 20 ( 10 ): 2580 – 2590 . PubMed ID: 15548201 doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03720.x 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03720.x 15548201 35. Murer M. , Yan Q , Raisman-Vozari R . Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the control human

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Ina M. Tarkka, Pekka Hautasaari, Heidi Pesonen, Eini Niskanen, Mirva Rottensteiner, Jaakko Kaprio, Andrej M. Savić, and Urho M. Kujala

structural and functional differences, which, in turn, may drive differences in PA. Although we control for genetic effects here, the causal nature and direction of causality require yet further elucidation. Plasticity of GM volume is usually thought to be associated with the cellular and synaptic plasticity

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Natalie Frost, Michael Weinborn, Gilles E. Gignac, Shaun Markovic, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph N. Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer, and Belinda M. Brown

efficacy of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition . European Journal of Neuroscience, 20 ( 10 ), 2580 – 2590 . PubMed ID: 15548201 doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03720.x 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03720.x Voss , M.W. , Basak , C. , Chaddock , L. , Kim , J.S. , Alves , H. , Heo , S

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Andrew Hooyman, Alexander Garbin, and Beth Fisher

.00621 Huang , Y.-Y. , Pittenger , C. , & Kandel , E.R. ( 2004 ). A form of long-lasting, learning-related synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus induced by heterosynaptic low-frequency pairing . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101 ( 3 ), 859 – 864

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Phillip D. Tomporowski and Daniel M. Pendleton

of brain catecholamines, which increases attention by altering neural signal-to-noise conditions ( McMorris, 2016 , 2018 ) and neurotrophic factors, which alter long-term potentiation and synaptic plasticity during memory consolidation ( Gomez-Pinilla & Hillman, 2013 ). A meta-analytic review of

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Kristy Martin, Kevin G. Thompson, Richard Keegan, and Ben Rattray

-6918(02)00150-6 10.1016/S0001-6918(02)00150-6 Vaynman , S. , Ying , Z. , & Gomez-Pinilla , F. ( 2004 ). Hippocampal BDNF mediates the efficacy of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition . European Journal of Neuroscience, 20 ( 10 ), 2580 – 2590 . PubMed ID: 15548201 doi:10.1111/j.1460

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Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

is primed to produce increased levels of BDNF compared to the resting brain ( Berchtold et al., 2005 ). This may give rise to the ability in athletes to preserve or restore executive function and augment synaptic plasticity. Mild brain injury conditions such as sport-related concussion have similar

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Junyeon Won, Alfonso J. Alfini, Lauren R. Weiss, James M. Hagberg, and J. Carson Smith

), 162 – 173 . PubMed ID: 8812068 doi: 10.1006/cbmr.1996.0014 Detoledo-Morrell , L. , Geinisman , Y. , & Morrell , F . ( 1988 ). Age-dependent alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity: Relation to memory disorders . Neurobiology of Aging, 9, 581 – 590 . doi: 10.1016/S0197