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João Paulo Limongi França Guilherme, Ekaterina A. Semenova, Hirofumi Zempo, Gabriel L. Martins, Antonio H. Lancha Junior, Eri Miyamoto-Mikami, Hiroshi Kumagai, Takuro Tobina, Keisuke Shiose, Ryo Kakigi, Takamasa Tsuzuki, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Hisashi Naito, Oleg V. Borisov, Elena S. Kostryukova, Nikolay A. Kulemin, Andrey K. Larin, Edward V. Generozov, Noriyuki Fuku, and Ildus I. Ahmetov

cerebellum of the adult brain, CPNE5 is moderately expressed in the striatum of adult mice that have learned a complex motor task. 22 Alterations in neuronal ensemble activity and synaptic plasticity of the striatum, the foundation for long-term motor learning or motor memory, are highly relevant for

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Robert Chen and Kaviraja Udupa

Several techniques that involve transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to measure brain plasticity noninvasively in humans. These include paired-associative stimulation (PAS), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and theta burst stimulation (TBS). Some of these techniques are based the principle of use dependent plasticity or are designed to mimic protocols used to induce long-term potentiation or depression in animal studies. These studies have been applied to certain neurological and psychiatric disorders to investigate their pathophysiology. For example, PAS induced plasticity is enhanced in dystonia and stroke but is reduced in Huntington’s disease and schizophrenia. Furthermore, TMS may be used to modulate brain plasticity and has therapeutic potential in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, dystonia and depression.

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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher, and Naiman A. Khan

mechanisms by which obesity contributes to cognitive impairment are unclear, evidence from neuroimaging studies indicates that increased adiposity is associated with alterations in brain structure and function that typically accompany cognitive deficits. These include reduced synaptic plasticity, 8 reduced

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Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin, and Antonio Dello Iacono

; 33 ( 3 ): 615 – 625 . PubMed ID: 30589723 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000003011 30589723 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003011 14. Zucker RS , Regehr WG . Short-term synaptic plasticity . Annu Rev Physiol . 2002 ; 64 ( 1 ): 355 – 405 .

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Laura Žlibinaitė, Rima Solianik, Daiva Vizbaraitė, Dalia Mickevičienė, and Albertas Skurvydas

hippocampus after a combined CR and exercise intervention; the authors also found that acute stress can upregulate BDNF in the hippocampus. 40 It is well established that BDNF improves cognition through its ability to enhance neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. 15 , 16 As expected, we observed that

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Ina M. Tarkka, Pekka Hautasaari, Heidi Pesonen, Eini Niskanen, Mirva Rottensteiner, Jaakko Kaprio, Andrej M. Savić, and Urho M. Kujala

structural and functional differences, which, in turn, may drive differences in PA. Although we control for genetic effects here, the causal nature and direction of causality require yet further elucidation. Plasticity of GM volume is usually thought to be associated with the cellular and synaptic plasticity

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Carolina Menezes Fiorelli, Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, Lucas Simieli, Fabiana Araújo Silva, Bianca Fernandes, Gustavo Christofoletti, and Fabio Augusto Barbieri

exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition . Eur J Neurosci . 2004 ; 20 ( 10 ): 2580 – 2590 . PubMed ID: 15548201 doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03720.x 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03720.x 15548201 35. Murer M. , Yan Q , Raisman-Vozari R . Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the control human

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Kristy Martin, Kevin G. Thompson, Richard Keegan, and Ben Rattray

-6918(02)00150-6 10.1016/S0001-6918(02)00150-6 Vaynman , S. , Ying , Z. , & Gomez-Pinilla , F. ( 2004 ). Hippocampal BDNF mediates the efficacy of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition . European Journal of Neuroscience, 20 ( 10 ), 2580 – 2590 . PubMed ID: 15548201 doi:10.1111/j.1460

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Natalie Frost, Michael Weinborn, Gilles E. Gignac, Shaun Markovic, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph N. Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer, and Belinda M. Brown

efficacy of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition . European Journal of Neuroscience, 20 ( 10 ), 2580 – 2590 . PubMed ID: 15548201 doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03720.x 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03720.x Voss , M.W. , Basak , C. , Chaddock , L. , Kim , J.S. , Alves , H. , Heo , S

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Phillip D. Tomporowski and Daniel M. Pendleton

of brain catecholamines, which increases attention by altering neural signal-to-noise conditions ( McMorris, 2016 , 2018 ) and neurotrophic factors, which alter long-term potentiation and synaptic plasticity during memory consolidation ( Gomez-Pinilla & Hillman, 2013 ). A meta-analytic review of