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Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Dirk De Clercq, Geert J.P. Savelsbergh, Rudy Van Coster, Ann Oostra, Griet Dewitte and Matthieu Lenoir

One-handed catching behavior was studied in nine 6- to 8-year-old boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and nine matched typically developing boys. The participants performed a catching task under two conditions. In the first condition, one ball speed was used while three ball speeds were randomly presented in the second condition. Boys with DCD showed a significantly smaller maximal hand aperture and a lower maximal closing velocity in both the first and the second condition; however, the temporal structure of the catch as well as the adaptations to the varying ball speeds did not differ between groups. This leads to the suggestion that the motor problems of boys with DCD in one-handed catching are not primarily due to debilitated visuo-perceptual or planning processes but are more likely caused by problems at the execution level.

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Weiyun Chen, Inez Rovegno, John Todorovich and Matt Babiarz

The purpose of this study was to describe third grade children’s movement responses to dribbling tasks taught by four accomplished teachers and how children’s dribbling varied with changes in task constraints. Children in four intact classes were videotaped during three dribbling lessons as part of their physical education program. Videotapes were analyzed to provide descriptions of children’s movement responses. Typically, when children dribbled while walking or jogging they controlled the ball, pushed with finger pads, and looked at the ball. When dribbling tasks were more difficult, in general, there was less ball control and more slapping with palms (less mature patterns) while at the same time more instances of children lifting their heads to look up (a more mature pattern). Task constraints had differential impacts on different dribbling elements. One implication is that teachers need to consider this differential impact in designing practice conditions and in selecting assessment tasks.

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Kelly de Jesus, Ross Sanders, Karla de Jesus, João Ribeiro, Pedro Figueiredo, João P. Vilas-Boas and Ricardo J. Fernandes


Coaches are often challenged to optimize swimmers’ technique at different training and competition intensities, but 3-dimensional (3D) analysis has not been conducted for a wide range of training zones.


To analyze front-crawl 3D kinematics and interlimb coordination from low to severe swimming intensities.


Ten male swimmers performed a 200-m front crawl at 7 incrementally increasing paces until exhaustion (0.05-m/s increments and 30-s intervals), with images from 2 cycles in each step (at the 25- and 175-m laps) being recorded by 2 surface and 4 underwater video cameras. Metabolic anaerobic threshold (AnT) was also assessed using the lactate-concentration–velocity curve-modeling method.


Stroke frequency increased, stroke length decreased, hand and foot speed increased, and the index of interlimb coordination increased (within a catch-up mode) from low to severe intensities (P ≤ .05) and within the 200-m steps performed above the AnT (at or closer to the 4th step; P ≤ .05). Concurrently, intracyclic velocity variations and propelling efficiency remained similar between and within swimming intensities (P > .05).


Swimming intensity has a significant impact on swimmers’ segmental kinematics and interlimb coordination, with modifications being more evident after the point when AnT is reached. As competitive swimming events are conducted at high intensities (in which anaerobic metabolism becomes more prevalent), coaches should implement specific training series that lead swimmers to adapt their technique to the task constraints that exist in nonhomeostatic race conditions.

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Jim Mckay and Donna O’Connor

task constraints such as rules and width of the field provides an opportunity to exaggerate or simulate match problems where players will make decisions on and off the ball based on their interpretation of situational cues and interaction with teammates and opponents. When a competition component is

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Patrick G. Campbell, Jonathan M. Peake and Geoffrey M. Minett

contexts. 8 From a match skill demand perspective, previous research has shown changes in decision making based on player positioning 26 and variations in movement based on specific task constraints. 27 The results of the present study would appear to support the need for rugby union training to

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Jade A.Z. Haycraft, Stephanie Kovalchik, David B. Pyne and Sam Robertson

for player selection into AFL talent pathways, may be important for selection into national junior teams. The task constraints of fitness tests (ie, aerobic, jumps, speed, agility, movement ability) in players within the National U16, National U18, and Local U12 levels have a greater relationship with

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Anne Z. Beethe, Elizabeth F. Nagle, Mita Lovalekar, Takashi Nagai, Bradley C. Nindl and Christopher Connaboy

strategy to optimize sCS 500-m performance. By doing so, novice sCS’s are able to optimize performance for the duration of the task. Due to task constraints related to sCS, including the limited use of the upper extremities and the additional gear, the FS 500-m time did not significantly predict novice sCS

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Marco Catarino Espada Estêvão Correia and Rachael Bertram

the influence of performance task constraints ( Greenwood, Davids, & Renshaw, 2012 ). The informal learning method of reflective practice, in which coaches reflect in and on their experiences, has been given a vital role and has been promoted as a method for improving the ability to undertake the

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Jeffery Kurt Ward, Peter A. Hastie and Kamden Strunk

of MVPA during mixed-ability game play. This may be explained in part in reference to Newell’s ( 1986 ) three classifications of constraints: performer, environmental, and task constraints. First, the interplay of the two subcategories of performer (i.e., structural and functional) may have made a

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Jarred Pilgrim, Peter Kremer and Sam Robertson

coaches/practitioners and players to be an important aspect of tournament preparation. Several players recalled situations in which they had adapted their preparation in response to changing task constraints such as unexpected weather condition or an acquired shot shape. It was explained that if an