This paper presents a framework for an evolving dynamical landscape of movement forms and their stability over the lifespan. It is proposed that the complexity and dimensionality of movement forms can expand and contract on a number of growth/decay time scales of change including those of adaptation, development, and learning. The expansion and contraction is reflected in: (1) the range of potential movement forms of the individual in developmental time; and (2) the dimensionality and complexity of any single movement form at a moment of observation given the confluence of individual, environmental, and task constraints. It is postulated that practice, exercise, and fatigue also coalesce to change the time scales of complexity and dimension of movement forms.
Karl M. Newell and Steven Morrison
Howard N. Zelaznik
Over the past 40 years the research area of motor learning and control has developed into a field closely aligned with information processing in neuroscience. The basic, implicit assumption is that motor learning and control is the domain of the brain. Several crucial studies and developments from the past and the present are presented and discussed that highlight this position. The future of following that current path is discussed. Then, the case is made that the control of movement is not just a brain process, and thus scientists in kinesiology need to study movement behavior at a coarser level of analysis. Motor control in kinesiology should use the Newell framework and thus should examine the nature of individual attributes, environmental information, and task constraints on learning and performance of motor skills.
A. Mark Williams and Bradley Fawver
motion perception as a function of expertise in badminton (198 cites), and the publication by Roca, Ford, McRobert, and Williams ( 2013 ) in the Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology that explores the impact of task constraints on anticipation in soccer (201 cites). These papers illustrate the
al., 2012 ). The layer of functional parameters specifies the factors that meet the task constraints. In the case of a percussive action, the efficiency of a strike defined in terms of energy will depend on the value of the kinetic energy produced at the moment of impact (i.e., the velocity at impact and
Mark L. Latash
groups ( synergies or modes in different studies, Krishnamoorthy, Goodman, Latash, & Zatsiorsky, 2003 ; Ting & Macpherson, 2005 ) is still larger than the typical number of task constraints so that the problem of motor redundancy is not solved. It is also good to remind that the problem of motor
Cheryl M. Glazebrook
more than a century scientists have systematically been exploring how humans learn to control our movements ( Adams, 1987 ; Elliott et al., 2001 ). In recent decades, neural imaging continues to give new insights into brain areas that are active under different task constraints. To date, neural