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Peter F. Bodary and M. Melissa Gross

, problem solving, interpersonal skills, teamwork, scientific communication, quantitative literacy ( Association of American Colleges and Universities, 2007 ). This has also changed the teaching goals for faculty as there is a shift in the curricular priorities regarding the skills needed and the course

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Duane Knudson and Karen Meaney

promotion of scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL; Boyer, 1991 ). Over a period of decades, researchers in education and numerous other academic disciplines have conclusively reported that active-learning instructional strategies significantly improve student engagement and learning over traditional

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Jence A. Rhoads, Marcos Daou, Keith R. Lohse and Matthew W. Miller

( McKeachie & Kulik, 1975 ). The notion that teaching facilitates the teacher’s learning has been a long accepted assumption in education. Bargh and Schul ( 1980 ) sought to investigate the cognitive benefits of teaching for the teacher. They proposed three stages of the teaching process: (1) preparation for

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Nina Verma, Robert C. Eklund, Calum A. Arthur, Timothy C. Howle and Ann-Marie Gibson

; Howle, Jackson, Conroy, & Dimmock, 2015 ), which we propose may be shaped by school-based physical education (PE) teachers’ use of transformational teaching behavior ( Beauchamp et al., 2010 ). A recent review has highlighted the potential effectiveness of school-based interventions underpinned by

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Sarpreet Kahlon, Kiah Brubacher-Cressman, Erica Caron, Keren Ramonov, Ruth Taubman, Katherine Berg, F. Virginia Wright and Alicia J. Hilderley

. Program delivery Cocreate session content with participant. Adopt an autonomy-supportive teaching style. Use teaching strategies to break down movements. Provide feedback on technique. Tailor feedback to participant preferences. Prompt self-reflection. Link practiced activities to goals. Theme 1: “World

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Terry L. Rizzo and Walter P. Vispoel

This study was conducted to determine the influence of two physical education courses on undergraduate physical educators’ attitudes toward teaching students labeled educable mentally retarded, behavioral disordered, and learning disabled. The two courses, Adapted Physical Education and Physical Education for Children, included 77 and 97 students, respectively. Four strategies for attitudinal change (information, contact, persuasion, and vicarious experience) were emphasized in the former course. Participants in both courses completed the Physical Educators’ Attitude Toward Teaching the Handicapped Questionnaire (PEATH–II) during the first and last days of a 16-week semester. The data were analyzed using a split-plot hierarchical ANOVA design with two between-subjects factors, course type and teacher (nested under course type), and two within-subjects factors, time (pretest and posttest) and handicapping label. Results indicated that attitudes toward teaching students with handicaps improved significantly in the adapted physical education course but not in the other course.

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Nathalie Aelterman, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Lynn Van den Berghe, Jotie De Meyer and Leen Haerens

The present intervention study examined whether physical education (PE) teachers can learn to make use of autonomy-supportive and structuring teaching strategies. In a sample of 39 teachers (31 men, M = 38.51 ± 10.44 years) and 669 students (424 boys, M = 14.58 ± 1.92 years), we investigated whether a professional development training grounded in self-determination theory led to changes in (a) teachers’ beliefs about the effectiveness and feasibility of autonomy-supportive and structuring strategies and (b) teachers’ in-class reliance on these strategies, as rated by teachers, external observers, and students. The intervention led to positive changes in teachers’ beliefs regarding both autonomy support and structure. As for teachers’ actual teaching behavior, the intervention was successful in increasing autonomy support according to students and external observers, while resulting in positive changes in teacher-reported structure. Implications for professional development and recommendations for future research are discussed.

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Terry L. Rizzo and Walter P. Vispoel

This study examined the relationship between selected attributes of physical educators (N=94) and their attitudes toward teaching students labeled educable mentally retarded, behaviorally disordered, and learning disabled. Data were collected through the administration of the Physical Educators’ Attitude Toward Teaching the Handicapped–II (PEATH–II) instrument. A forward stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that, of the eight selected teacher variables assessed, physical educators’ perceived competence in teaching students with handicaps was the best predictor of attitudes. A repeated-measures ANOVA and subsequent post hoc comparison tests indicated that learning disabled students were viewed more favorably than educable mentally retarded and behaviorally disordered students.

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Phillip Conatser, Martin Block and Monica Lepore

The purpose was to examine attitudes of aquatic instructors (female, n = 59; male, n = 23) toward teaching swimming to students with mild to severe disabilities in an inclusive setting. Aquatic instructors from 28 states representing 75 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. Data were collected by mail with a modified version of Rizzo’s (1984) “Attitudes of Physical Educators Toward Teaching Handicapped Pupils” (renamed “Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities - Swim”). A correlated t test showed that aquatic instructors were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to students with mild disabilities than students with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that conducting an inclusive aquatic program was the best predictor of favorable attitudes toward including students with mild disabilities, while having more certifications in aquatics was the best predictor of favorable attitudes toward including students with severe disabilities in regular aquatic programs.

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Terry L. Rizzo

This study assessed the attitudes of physical educators (n = 194) toward teaching handicapped pupils in the regular class. The survey instrument used was the Physical Educators Attitude Toward Teaching the Handicapped (PEATH), which assesses teacher attitudes according to the type of handicapping condition (learning and physical) and grade level (K-3, 4-6, 7-8). A 2 × 3 randomized block factorial design and the Tukey (HSD) post hoc analysis were applied to the data. Results indicated that physical educators held more favorable attitudes toward teaching pupils with learning handicaps than those with physical handicaps. Furthermore, as grade level advanced from primary (K-3) to intermediate (4-6) and upper (7-8) grades, teacher attitudes became progressively less favorable.