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Celina H. Shirazipour, Madelaine Meehan and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

The Invictus Games are a parasport competition for service members and veterans with illnesses and injuries. The 2014 Games were aired by the BBC, for a total of 12 hr of coverage. This study aimed to investigate what messages were conveyed regarding parasport for veterans during the BBC’s Invictus Games broadcast. A content analysis was conducted. Five qualitative themes were identified: sport as rehabilitation, the promotion of ability over disability, the social environment, key outcomes of participation, and the importance of competition. Quantitative results indicated that 2 segment types accounted for the majority of the broadcast: sport coverage (50.57%) and athlete experiences (12.56%). Around half of the coverage focused on participants with a physical disability (51.62%). The findings demonstrate key similarities to and differences from previous explorations of parasport media coverage, with the needs of the event and athlete population potentially influencing the broadcast.

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Lea Ann “Beez” Schell and Margaret Carlisle Duncan

We examined the landmark American television coverage of the 1996 Paralympic Games. Using a methodological framework developed by Duncan (1983, 1986) and drawing on critical concepts in the disability literature, we conducted a content analysis of the entire 4-hr prerecorded broadcast. Empowering and disempowering portrayals of athletes were identified. Some commentary contained many examples of stereotyping and positioned Paralympians as victims of misfortune, as different, as Other. Other commentary characterized Paralympians as “normal” and as no different from nondisabled athletes. The brevity of the coverage, the poor production values, and the absence of commentary about rules, strategies, and physical mastery suggested that the Paralympic Games were less than, not parallel to, the Olympics. A “hierarchy of (social) acceptability” was useful in explaining differences among the way Paralympic athletes were portrayed by television coverage.

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details five ways ATs can limit their liability. Other topics covered in the issue include legal considerations associated with return-to-play decisions and legal concerns related to second impact syndrome. Watch NATA TV Convention Recaps If you were not able to make it to New Orleans for the 69th NATA

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Peter Brubaker, Cemal Ozemek, Alimer Gonzalez, Stephen Wiley and Gregory Collins


Underwater treadmill (UTM) exercise is being used with increased frequency for rehabilitation of injured athletes, yet there has been little research conducted on this modality.


To determine the cardiorespiratory responses of UTM vs land treadmill (LTM) exercise, particularly with respect to the relationship between heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2).

Design and Setting:

This quantitative original research took place in sports medicine and athletic training facilities at Wake Forest University.


11 Wake Forest University student athletes (20.8 ± 0.6 y, 6 women and 5 men).


All participants completed the UTM and LTM exercise-testing protocols in random order. After 5 min of standing rest, both UTM and LTM protocols had 4 stages of increasing belt speed (2.3, 4.9, 7.3, and 9.6 km/h) followed by 3 exercise stages at 9.6 km/h with increasing water-jet resistance (30%, 40%, and 50% of jet capacity) or inclines (1%, 2%, and 4% grade).

Main Outcome Measures:

A Cosmed K4b2 device with Polar monitor was used to collect HR, ventilation (Ve), tidal volume (TV), breathing frequency (Bf), and VO2 every minute. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were also obtained each minute.


There was no significant difference between UTM and LTM for VO2 at rest or during any stage of exercise except stage 3. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between UTM and LTM for HR, Ve, Bf, and RPE on any exercise stage. Linear regression of HR vs VO2, across all stages of exercise, indicates a similar relationship in these variables during UTM (r = .94, y = .269x − 10.86) and LTM (r = .95, y = .291x − 12.98).


These data indicate that UTM and LTM exercise elicits similar cardiorespiratory responses and that HR can be used to guide appropriate exercise intensity for college athletes during UTM.

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Christina Evaggelinou and Dimitris Grekinis

Disability sport provides a setting in which attributes, practices, and beliefs of spectators can be examined. The Spectator Questionnaire (SQ) was used to collect data on 114 of the spectators attending the 1993 International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Games (ISMWG). Most spectators (96%) were not athletes in the games, and only 24% were relatives of athletes with disabilities. Spectators were attending the games primarily to encourage athletes in their efforts and to learn more about wheelchair sports. Spectators indicated they would prioritize their time to view wheelchair sports on television. Studying spectators at carefully organized wheelchair sport events may provide useful information that can be used in other settings, such as in the development and implementation of programs to facilitate the inclusion of people with disabilities in mainstreamed environments.

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Anna M. Ifarraguerri, Danielle M. Torp, Abbey C. Thomas and Luke Donovan

commercially-available high-definition (1080p) camera (Hero 5; GoPro Inc., San Mateo, CA), sampling at 60 frames/s. The video camera was connected to a flat screen television (55” LED-1080p; Samsung Inc., San Jose, CA) via an high-definition multimedia interface (HDMI) cord. The video camera was placed on a

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Janina M. Prado-Rico and Marcos Duarte

stand, except that they were required to not step off the force plates. To mimic natural standing in everyday life, as we usually do something else while standing, all subjects performed the relaxed standing task in two conditions: (a) watching a television documentary on a television set located 3 m in

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Leigh J. Allin, Maury A. Nussbaum and Michael L. Madigan

covered in vinyl tile. Subjects were notified that they may be slipped, tripped, or neither while walking, and were instructed that, in the event of a slip or trip, they should “attempt to recover their balance and continue walking.” Subjects walked while watching a television mounted on the wall at each

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Megan Elizabeth Evelyn Mormile, Jody L. Langdon and Tamerah Nicole Hunt

, television, or other cognitively taxing activities are to be avoided, as they may exacerbate symptoms. Recovery should follow an individualized and stepwise approach, with no activity taking place while still symptomatic at rest or with exertion. The National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA) position

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Kayla E. Boehm, Blaine C. Long, Mitchell T. Millar and Kevin C. Miller

observations or on television. 10. If you answered yes to the previous question, have you been asked to apply Kinesio ® Tape based on this reason? Note . Prior to implementing the survey, we pilot tested all 37 questions to ensure readability and clarity. This was performed by faculty familiar with survey