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Steven Salaga, Scott Tainsky and Michael Mondello

frequently on the schedule. NatlTV is an indicator identifying the game was concurrently broadcast nationally on one of the NBA’s network television partners or on NBA TV. Nationally televised games are typically heavily marketed, which may generate increased consumer interest in the local market. However

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Fernando Borges

way of getting extra revenue, Benfica TV’s mission was related to the preservation of the club’s history, considered by the directors an invaluable asset to the club. In the beginning, Benfica TV was an exclusive channel of MEO, one of the main Portuguese television operators. It was a partnership

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Calvin Nite and Marvin Washington

favoring the national broadcasting limits ( “NCAA draws basic plan for football TV,” 1955 ). This expansion was notable because it grew the number of broadcasted games and afforded more opportunities for schools to appear on television. Despite the rapid growth of television, the NCAA’s television plan did

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Walter Gantz and Lawrence A. Wenner

Employing a uses and gratifications paradigm, we expected that audience experience with televised sports would vary on the basis of fanship, with fans having a qualitatively different, deeper, and more textured set of expectations and responses than nonfans. Fans were expected to respond in similar ways, regardless of gender. Telephone interviews were completed with 707 adults residing in Los Angeles and Indianapolis. Fanship was operationalized using cognitive, affective, and behavioral bases. In this study, fanship made a difference, with fans clearly more invested in the viewing experience. Male and female sports fans reacted and responded in almost identical ways, although men generally were an insignificant shade more involved than women. However, since more males are fans, the televised sports viewing experience in many households may not be shared, even when husbands and wives watch the same TV sports program.

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Thomas Horky, Marianna Baranovskaa, Christoph G. Grimmer, Honorata Jakubowska and Barbara Stelzner

Germany vs. Ukraine 2:0 (1:0) June 12, 2016; 21:00/20:00 Germany: ARD [German public television channel], live commentary by a sports journalist 3:17:50 hr Ukraine: UKRAïNA [private TV channel], live commentary by a sports journalist 3:32:02 hr Germany v. Poland 0:0) June 16, 2016; 21:00 Germany: ZDF

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Adam C. Earnheardt

The extent to which television viewers are fans of sports and their motivation for viewing sports may affect their judgments of athletes’ antisocial behaviors. The uses and gratifications theoretical framework guided exploration of possible predictors of judgments. The sample (N = 347) consisted of sports television viewers. Fandom correlated significantly with motives for viewing televised sports, parasocial interaction, and identification. Fandom was negatively related to judgments of violent crime behaviors and uncharitable/dishonest behaviors. Women who were engaged in other activities while viewing televised sports were more likely to judge violent crime behaviors as most wrong, or negatively. Additional analyses suggested that women who reported lower degrees of fandom, weaker affinity for televised sports, weaker intention to watch sports, weaker self-esteem/achievement and entertaining relaxation motives, and paying less attention to televised sports were the viewers who tended to judge athletes’ violent crime behaviors, uncharitable behaviors, and drug- and steroid-use behaviors as most wrong.

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Margaret MacNeill

This paper presents an ethnographic study of the Canadian Television Network’s (CTV) production of the 1988 Winter Olympic ice-hockey tournament. Interview data and media documents are analyzed to uncover how CTV strategically employed hockey as a spectacle of accumulation to boost ratings, expand market positioning, and to attract sponsors while blocking media competitors. At another level of understanding, ethnographic observations of the televisual labor process provide insights into how Olympic broadcasting constitutes a form of mediated communication or a spectacle of legitimation. Observations illustrate how the crew remade the live sporting event into a series of select cultural images. The manufacturing of Olympic images is revealed to be a social process that reproduces select systems of meaning, reinforces particular modes of media production, and strengthens monopolistic network relationships.

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John Williams

This article is concerned with unpacking some of the important dimensions of the developing relationship in Britain between satellite television and sport. The article discusses (a) the rise of Rupert Murdoch’s BSkyB network and the central role of Sky’s exclusive deal with the new Football Association Premier League for soccer in cementing the future for satellite broadcasting in Europe, and (h) the role of sport and television in constructing national identities and in promoting some of the conditions for the enactment of effective forms of citizenship. The discussion concludes with some comments on recent trends in the commercialization of sport and on the possibilities for the mediation of new forms of spectator attachments to sport.

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Beth A. Cianfrone and James J. Zhang

This study examined the differential effectiveness of television commercials, athlete endorsements, venue signage, and combined promotions as assessed by Generation Y consumers. A 2 × 4 independent-group experimental design was conducted, consisting of two experimental conditions (experimental and control) and four video footage interventions with different promotional procedures (television commercial, athlete endorsement, venue signage, and combined promotion). A total of 253 subjects were randomly assigned into the eight groups. The subjects responded to a questionnaire that measured brand awareness in terms of unaided recall, aided recall, and recognition. A factorial MANCOVA revealed that after controlling for differences in the consumption backgrounds of action sports among the subjects, all four promotional procedures effectively increased brand awareness during a televised action sports event. Television commercials were the most effective, followed by combined promotion, athlete endorsement, and venue signage.

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Klaus V. Meier

Television is the most immediate and compelling medium for sports coverage. Consequently, the sports presentations that it delivers, particularly championship series, attract a vast and devoted audience. This study provided a detailed, descriptive content analysis of the television broadcast packaging of the 1982-83 championship games, both professional and university, of the four most popular North American team sports—baseball, football, hockey, and basketball. Videotape recordings of the entire broadcast packages centered upon these games were analyzed. The program content was divided into four specific and distinct components: advertisements, pre- and postgame programs, between-play time, and live-play time. The ensuing discussion addressed the basic structure of each broadcast package, the absolute and relative data for each of the four components of the various games and, finally, the intriguing relationship between the derived data (particularly the live-play time component) and concomitant levels of viewer ratings. Concluding comments reflected on the significance of the findings and also provided considerations for future research based upon materials presented within the study.