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Steven Salaga, Scott Tainsky and Michael Mondello

frequently on the schedule. NatlTV is an indicator identifying the game was concurrently broadcast nationally on one of the NBA’s network television partners or on NBA TV. Nationally televised games are typically heavily marketed, which may generate increased consumer interest in the local market. However

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Fernando Borges

way of getting extra revenue, Benfica TV’s mission was related to the preservation of the club’s history, considered by the directors an invaluable asset to the club. In the beginning, Benfica TV was an exclusive channel of MEO, one of the main Portuguese television operators. It was a partnership

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Calvin Nite and Marvin Washington

favoring the national broadcasting limits ( “NCAA draws basic plan for football TV,” 1955 ). This expansion was notable because it grew the number of broadcasted games and afforded more opportunities for schools to appear on television. Despite the rapid growth of television, the NCAA’s television plan did

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Thomas Horky, Marianna Baranovskaa, Christoph G. Grimmer, Honorata Jakubowska and Barbara Stelzner

Germany vs. Ukraine 2:0 (1:0) June 12, 2016; 21:00/20:00 Germany: ARD [German public television channel], live commentary by a sports journalist 3:17:50 hr Ukraine: UKRAïNA [private TV channel], live commentary by a sports journalist 3:32:02 hr Germany v. Poland 0:0) June 16, 2016; 21:00 Germany: ZDF

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Adam C. Earnheardt

The extent to which television viewers are fans of sports and their motivation for viewing sports may affect their judgments of athletes’ antisocial behaviors. The uses and gratifications theoretical framework guided exploration of possible predictors of judgments. The sample (N = 347) consisted of sports television viewers. Fandom correlated significantly with motives for viewing televised sports, parasocial interaction, and identification. Fandom was negatively related to judgments of violent crime behaviors and uncharitable/dishonest behaviors. Women who were engaged in other activities while viewing televised sports were more likely to judge violent crime behaviors as most wrong, or negatively. Additional analyses suggested that women who reported lower degrees of fandom, weaker affinity for televised sports, weaker intention to watch sports, weaker self-esteem/achievement and entertaining relaxation motives, and paying less attention to televised sports were the viewers who tended to judge athletes’ violent crime behaviors, uncharitable behaviors, and drug- and steroid-use behaviors as most wrong.

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Beth A. Cianfrone and James J. Zhang

This study examined the differential effectiveness of television commercials, athlete endorsements, venue signage, and combined promotions as assessed by Generation Y consumers. A 2 × 4 independent-group experimental design was conducted, consisting of two experimental conditions (experimental and control) and four video footage interventions with different promotional procedures (television commercial, athlete endorsement, venue signage, and combined promotion). A total of 253 subjects were randomly assigned into the eight groups. The subjects responded to a questionnaire that measured brand awareness in terms of unaided recall, aided recall, and recognition. A factorial MANCOVA revealed that after controlling for differences in the consumption backgrounds of action sports among the subjects, all four promotional procedures effectively increased brand awareness during a televised action sports event. Television commercials were the most effective, followed by combined promotion, athlete endorsement, and venue signage.

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Travis Vogan

Despite its popularity, pervasiveness, and value, ESPN’s programming is not typically recognized as sophisticated or artful. To give its brand identity greater prestige within the increasingly competitive world of cable sports television, in 2008 ESPN created ESPN Films, a subsidiary film production unit that specializes in documentaries. ESPN Films’ most ambitious project thus far is 30 for 30 (2009–2010), a series of 30 documentaries made by 30 commissioned filmmakers to celebrate ESPN’s 30th anniversary. ESPN markets 30 for 30 through emphasizing three primary qualities that distinguish the series, and, by extension, ESPN, from other sports television: the use of the documentary form, the productions’ status as films, and the commissioned filmmakers’ position as renowned artists. This essay uses ESPN Films and 30 for 30 to examine ESPN’s efforts to add refinement to its institutional identity and to illustrate the economic and industrial functions this shift in cultural status serves.

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Brendan Dwyer

The business of fantasy football is a multibillion dollar-per-year industry. However, academic inquiry into the distinct attitudes and intentions of fantasy football participants is underdeveloped. Therefore, following Fazio, Powell, and Herr’s proposed attitude–behavior framework, this study examined the relationship between sport fans’ attitudes, fantasy football involvement level, and intentions to watch the televised broadcast of National Football League (NFL) games. The results suggest that fantasy football is a noteworthy connection point for NFL fans. Specifically, fantasy participation appears to duplicate the positive and negative attitudes of traditional team fandom, and this replication ultimately increases television viewership throughout the league. Thus, instead of competing with traditional team-focused professional-football viewership, fantasy football appears to be a complementary or value-adding activity. Discussed are theoretical outcomes, as well as the practical implications for sport marketers and media providers looking to capitalize on this highly popular and lucrative online activity.

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Xin Zhong, Shuhua Zhou and Guosong Shao

This article moves away from content-oriented studies on Olympics coverage by focusing on the producers of Olympic images. The study first explicates the concept of professionalism and the objectives of Olympics coverage. A survey questionnaire was designed accordingly to measure a sample of the Chinese professionals who were part of the production team of the international TV signal for the Beijing Olympics. Results indicated that the production professionals were well prepared and were in line with Olympic ideals. Less clear-cut were the concepts of motion and emotion in Olympic coverage. Implications are discussed.

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L. Marlene Mawson and William T. Bowler III

The 1984 Supreme Court ruling in the antitrust suit between the Universities of Oklahoma and Georgia, representing the College Football Association (CFA), versus the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) provided mat individual institutions had proper authority to sell television rights to their football games. The NCAA had controlled television appearances of collegiate football teams with the rationale of preventing erosion of game attendance due to televised home football games. Records of home games televised, television revenues from football games, and attendance at televised football games were gathered from 57% of NCAA Division I institutions and compared for a 3-year period prior to the 1984 ruling, with a 3-year period following the ruling. Four sets oft tests between mean data for the pre- and posttime periods showed that although the number of games scheduled per season remained the same, the number of televised football games significantly increased, the television revenues from football remained constant, and attendance at televised home football games decreased significantly after the 1984 ruling.