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Bronwyn Kay Clark, Takemi Sugiyama, Genevieve N. Healy, Jo Salmon, David W. Dunstan, Jonathan E. Shaw, Paul Z. Zimmet and Neville Owen

Background:

Sedentary behaviors, particularly television viewing (TV) time, are associated with adverse health outcomes in adults, independent of physical activity levels. These associations are stronger and more consistent for women than for men.

Methods:

Multivariate regression models examined the sociodemographic correlates of 2 categories of TV time (≥2 hours/day and ≥4 hours/day); in a large, population-based sample of Australian adults (4950 men, 6001 women; mean age 48.1 years, range 25–91) who participated in the 1999/2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study.

Results:

Some 46% of men and 40% of women watched ≥ 2 hours TV/day; 9% and 6% respectively watched ≥ 4 hours/day. For both men and women, ≥2 hours TV/day was associated with less than tertiary education, living outside of state capital cities, and having no paid employment. For women, mid and older age (45−64 and 65+) were also significant correlates of ≥2 hours TV/day. Similar patterns of association were observed in those viewing ≥4 hours/day.

Conclusions:

Prolonged TV time is associated with indices of social disadvantage and older age. These findings can inform the understanding of potential contextual influences and guide preventive initiatives.

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Jeremy A. Steeves, David R. Bassett, Eugene C. Fitzhugh, Hollie Raynor, Chi Cho and Dixie L. Thompson

Background:

Physical activity (PA) is enjoyable, but there are barriers to participation. TV viewing is highly enjoyable with limited barriers. Exercising while viewing TV may impact enjoyment, exercise self-efficacy, and barriers to PA, compared with exercising without TV.

Methods:

58 sedentary, overweight adults were randomized to 1 of 2 PA prescriptions: one that increased PA during TV viewing (TV Commercial Stepping), and another that focused solely on PA (Walking). Random effects models tested changes in enjoyment of TV and PA, exercise self-efficacy, and barriers to PA across time (baseline, 3, and 6 months) and PA prescription during a 6-month PA intervention.

Results:

At baseline, TV was more enjoyable than PA. Over the 6-month intervention, enjoyment of TV viewing did not change, but enjoyment of PA and exercise self-efficacy significantly increased, while barriers to PA significantly decreased for both groups compared with baseline (P < .05).

Conclusions:

While enjoyment of TV viewing remained constant, PA became more enjoyable, confidence to exercise increased, and barriers to being active were reduced for previously sedentary adults participating in a behavioral PA intervention. These findings highlight the importance of encouraging inactive adults to engage in some form of PA, whether it occurs with or without TV viewing.

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Yasuhiko Kubota, Alvaro Alonso, Amil M. Shah, Lin Y. Chen and Aaron R. Folsom

prevent the increased mortality risk associated with high television (TV) watching time. 5 Thus, of several sedentary behaviors, TV watching might be a risk factor or marker for atherosclerotic CVD independent of physical activity. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent sustained cardiac

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Monique Potvin Kent and Clive Velkers

the recommended guidelines of at least 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily. 10 Physical inactivity is frequently associated with increased time spent watching television and, in fact, children in Canada spend approximately 19 hours a week watching television. 11 , 12

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Xiaolin Yang, Irinja Lounassalo, Anna Kankaanpää, Mirja Hirvensalo, Suvi P. Rovio, Asko Tolvanen, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Harri Helajärvi, Sanna H. Palomäki, Kasper Salin, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Olli T. Raitakari and Tuija H. Tammelin

reclining posture, 2 and it should be distinguished from “physical inactivity.” 1 Of various sedentary behaviors, television viewing (TV) time still remains the most prevalent in Finland despite the proliferation of other electronic devices. 3 Increased TV time has been found to be associated with more

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Janelle M. Wagnild and Tessa M. Pollard

Television (TV) time is consistently linked with poor health outcomes, including all-cause mortality and incident type 2 diabetes. 1 Within epidemiological studies, the associations between TV time and cardiometabolic health outcomes are generally interpreted to be effects of sitting. However, the

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Steven N. Blair, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

, & Chinapaw, 2011 ). It can be commonly interpreted as physical inactivity; however, sedentary behavior is not physical inactivity by a different name ( van der Ploeg & Hillsdon, 2017 ). Although television (TV) viewing may not be considered a proxy of overall sedentary behavior, it is the most common

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André O. Werneck, Edilson S. Cyrino, Paul J. Collings, Enio R.V. Ronque, Célia L. Szwarcwald, Luís B. Sardinha and Danilo R. Silva

equivalents while in a sitting or reclining posture, 2 has been shown to exhibit associations with cardiovascular disease and mortality. 3 , 4 Levels of television (TV) viewing are known to be high in Brazilian adults, 5 but the population distribution of TV viewing has not thoroughly been investigated

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Katherine L. Downing, Jo Salmon, Anna Timperio, Trina Hinkley, Dylan P. Cliff, Anthony D. Okely and Kylie D. Hesketh

Sedentary behavior refers to activities undertaken in a sitting or lying position and requiring minimal energy expenditure, 1 for example, sitting down watching television (TV) or reading. There is increasing evidence that sedentary behavior, particularly sedentary screen time, is associated with

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Jelle Van Cauwenberg, Liesbeth De Donder, Peter Clarys, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Neville Owen, Sarah Dury, Nico De Witte, Tine Buffel, Dominique Verté and Benedicte Deforche

Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting) can be associated detrimentally with health outcomes. Older adults, the most sedentary age group, are especially at risk due to their high levels of television viewing time. This study examined individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of older adults’ television viewing. Data on daily television viewing time, plus individual, social, and physical environmental factors were collected from 50,986 noninstitutionalized older adults (≥ 65 years) in Flanders (Belgium). The results showed significant relationships between television viewing time and individual, social, and physical environmental factors. Subgroups at risk for high levels of television viewing were those who were functionally limited, less educated, widowed, and (semi)urban-dwelling older adults. Our findings illustrate a cross-sectional link between older adults’ television viewing time and social composition of their neighborhood, formal participation, access to alternative activities, and safety from crime.