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Tijs Delabastita, Stijn Bogaerts and Benedicte Vanwanseele

In the human body, the forces produced by muscle-tendon units are transmitted to the skeleton through tendons. Because of their elastic properties, they allow energy storage and return during functional activities. As a result, the tendon decouples the muscle fascicle length changes from the total

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Seong-won Han, Dae-yeon Lee, Dong-Sung Choi, Boram Han, Jin-Sun Kim and Hae-Dong Lee

This study aimed to examine whether muscle force and tendon stiffness in a muscle-tendon complex alter synchronously following 8-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training in older people. Forty older women aged 65 years and older were randomly assigned into control (CON, n = 15) and whole-body vibration (WBV) training groups (exposure time, n = 13; vibration intensity, n = 12). For the training groups, a 4-week detraining period was completed following the training period. Throughout the training/detraining period, force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle and stiffness of the Achilles tendon were assessed four times (0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks) using a combined system of dynamometer and ultrasonography. While muscle force gradually increased throughout the training period (p < .05), a significant increase in tendon stiffness was observed after 8 weeks (p < .05). These findings indicated that, during the early phase of WBV training, muscle force and tendon stiffness changed asynchronously, which might be a factor in possible musculotendinous injuries.

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Fabien Cignetti, Sébastien Caudron, Marianne Vaugoyeau and Christine Assaiante

There is evidence that adolescence is a critical period in development, most likely involving important modifications of the body schema and of the sensorimotor representations. The present study addressed this issue, by investigating the differences between adolescents and adults regarding the integration of proprioceptive information at both perceptual and postural levels and the visual recognition of human movement. Proprioceptive integration was examined using muscle-tendon vibration that evoked either a postural response or an illusory sensation of movement. The ability to recognize human movement was investigated from a paradigm where the participants had to discern between human movements performed with and without gravity. The study produced three main findings. First, the adolescents had larger postural responses to tendon vibrations than the adults, with visual information enabling them to reduce this exaggerated postural reaction. Second, the adolescents had a greater illusory perception of movement compared with the adults. Third, the adolescents had the same perceptual ability as adults in the human movement perception task. In conclusion, we were able to highlight notable differences between adolescents and young adults, which confirms the late maturation of multisensory integration for postural control and the privileged visual contribution to postural control.

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Yvonne M. Golightly, Stephen W. Marshall, Leigh F. Callahan and Kevin Guskiewicz

Background:

Injury has been identified as a potential risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, no previous study has addressed playing-career injuries and subsequent osteoarthritis in a large sample of former athletes. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and determinants of arthritis and osteoarthritis in retired professional football players.

Methods:

Self-reported arthritis prevalence and retrospectively-recalled injury history were examined in a cross-sectional survey of 2,538 retired football players.

Results:

Football players reported a high incidence of injury from their professional playing days (52.8% reported knee injuries, 74.1% reported ligament/tendon injuries, and 14.2% reported anterior cruciate ligament tears). For those under 60 years, 40.6% of retired NFL players reported arthritis, compared with 11.7% of U.S. males (prevalence ratio =3.5, 95%CI: 3.3 to 3.7). Within the retired NFL player cohort, osteoarthritis was more prevalent in those with a history of knee injury (prevalence ratio = 1.7, 95%CI: 1.5 to 1.9) and ligament/tendon injury (prevalence ratio = 1.6, 95%CI: 1.4 to 1.9).

Conclusions:

In males under the age of 60, arthritis is over 3 times more prevalent in retired NFL players than in the general U.S. population. This excess of early-onset arthritis may be due to the high incidence of injury in football.

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Pablo A. Domene, Michelle Stanley and Glykeria Skamagki

), muscle or tendon (eg, rupture, strain, tear), nerve (eg, numbness, pins and needles), and other. The following 12 exclusive categories were used to code injury location 3 , 20 : ankle and foot, back and pelvis, chest, forearm and wrist, hand, head and neck, hip, knee, lower leg and Achilles tendon

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Katie A. Conway and Jason R. Franz

limiting of push-off intensity and thereby walking performance in the older adults. Peak ankle moment during push-off represents the product of plantar flexor muscle forces and their respective muscle-tendon moment arms. Indeed, many studies have implicated sarcopenia and leg muscle weakness as

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Talita Molinari, Tainara Steffens, Cristian Roncada, Rodrigo Rodrigues and Caroline P. Dias

; Duclay, Martin, Duclay, Cometti, & Pousson, 2009 ; Reeves et al., 2009 ) and an increase in tendon stiffness ( Duclay et al., 2009 ; Kay et al., 2016 ), which can influence the generation and transmission of muscle strength ( Sharma & Maffulli, 2005 ; Urlando & Hawkins, 2007 ). This meta

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Fabiana Rodrigues Osti, Caroline Ribeiro de Souza and Luis Augusto Teixeira

tasks on balance ability in stroke patients . Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27 ( 8 ), 2457 – 2460 . PubMed doi:10.1589/jpts.27.2457 10.1589/jpts.27.2457 Thompson , C. , Belanger , M. , & Fung , J. ( 2011 ). Effects of plantar cutaneo-muscular and tendon vibration on posture and balance

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Marina Arkkukangas, Susanna Tuvemo Johnson, Karin Hellström, Elisabeth Anens, Michail Tonkonogi and Ulf Larsson

: 20440099 doi: 10.1007/BF03324786 Keller , K. , & Engelhardt , M. ( 2013 ). Strength and muscle mass loss with aging process. Age and strength loss . Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal, 3 ( 4 ), 346 – 350 . doi: 10.32098/mltj.04.2013.17 Liu , C.J. , Chang , W.P. , Araujo de Carvalho , I

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Nathaniel S. Nye, Drew S. Kafer, Cara Olsen, David H. Carnahan and Paul F. Crawford

, the joint injury category contains multiple ICD-9 codes, such as “719.46, joint pain, localized in the knee” which are often used in practice by busy clinicians as nonspecific or “waste-basket” diagnoses, when the true etiology of pain could actually be a tendon/bursa problem, an osteoarthritis, a