sensitivity, arterial blood pressure, and weight status ( Russo et al., 2016 ), all areas that if left untreated can predispose overweight/obese individuals to future health issues. When exercise is prescribed in order to combat obesity, exercise testing is often used in order to measure the impact of a
Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius
Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, Hiroaki Funahashi and Popi Sotiriadou
can inform national governments and high-level sport organizations to set priorities in the strategic development of elite sport policy. To address the above-mentioned research gap, this study developed and tested a quantitative scale for measuring the perceptions of individuals toward the positive
Gordon A. Bloom and Michael D. Smith
Cultural spillover theory holds that the more a society tends to legitimate the use of violence to attain ends for which there is widespread social approval, the greater the likelihood of illegitimate violence. This study was a test of cultural spillover theory as it applies to hockey violence. Based on data from a representative sample survey of Toronto hockey players and a comparison group of nonplayers, we tested the proposition that violence in hockey “spills over” into violence in other social settings. The results offer support for a cultural spillover explanation of hockey violence. Older players in highly competitive select-leagues were more likely to approve of violence and to act violently in other social settings than were younger select-league players, house-league players, and nonplayers of all ages.
Brett D. Johnson and Norris R. Johnson
One explanation for stacking in sports is that minorities are excluded from positions with the greatest opportunity for determining the outcome of the competition, with the place kicker in football cited as an example. This paper postulated that the short relief pitcher in baseball also has high outcome control, and it hypothesized that minorities would be underrepresented in that position as well. We classified major league pitchers from the 1992 and 1993 seasons as starters, stoppers, or others and tested whether race or ethnicity was a factor in assignment to these positions. The hypothesis was not supported for either African American or Latin American pitchers. Minority group members were equally underrepresented in all categories of the pitcher position.
William McTeer and James E. Curtis
This study examines the relationship between physical activity in sport and feelings of well-being, testing alternative interpretations of the relationship between these two variables. It was expected that there would be positive relationships between physical activity on the one hand and physical fitness, feelings of well-being, social interaction in the sport and exercise environment, and socioeconomic status on the other hand. It was also expected that physical fitness, social interaction, and socioeconomic status would be positively related to psychological well-being. Further, it was expected that any positive zero-order relationship of physical activity and well-being would be at least in part a result of the conjoint effects of the other variables. The analyses were conducted separately for the male and female subsamples of a large survey study of Canadian adults. The results, after controls, show a modest positive relationship of physical activity and well-being for males but no such relationship for females. The predicted independent effects of the control factors obtained for both males and females. Interpretations of the results are discussed.
Laura A. Wackwitz
This essay chronicles the practice of sex testing in international women’s athletics as it has been portrayed in the print new media from 1966 through 1995. As a medical test officially sanctioned by the International Olympic Committee, sex testing involves examination of a woman’s physical and/or genetic characteristics in order to determine her eligibility for competition. Although sex testing has recently come under scrutiny, the IOC historically has shrouded this practice in a veil of silence. My purpose here is to help lift that veil by drawing into one forum the arguments for and against sex testing, as they have developed in the past thirty years.
Kostas Alexandris, Rodoula H. Tsiotsou and Jeffrey D. James
The objective of this research was to test the application of an alternative hierarchy of effects model (affect, cognition, and conation) in the context of sponsorship. Activity involvement and team attachment (affect) were proposed to influence sponsor image and attitudes toward sponsorship (cognition), which in turn were proposed to influence consumer behavioral intentions (conation). Fans of a professional basketball team in Greece (N = 384) participated in the study. The results provided support for the alternative hierarchy of effects model and its application in the context of sponsorship. Team attachment (affect) was shown to have both a direct and indirect relationship with behavioral intentions (conation), through its influence on sponsor image and attitudes toward sponsorship (cognition). Furthermore, the attraction dimension of involvement was shown to influence team attachment. The theoretical and managerial implications of these results are discussed.
Philip G. White and James E. Curtis
Multivariate analyses are presented showing, for the mid-1970s, the comparative propensities of Canadian anglophones and francophones to participate in forms of competitive sport and sport outside the family. Presented are data consistent with the values-differences perspective, which holds that there are differences in orientation toward achievement and the family across the Canadian linguistic groups. The analyses focus on a test of a specification of the values-differences thesis—the school-socialization interpretation, which holds that sport involvement patterns result in part because of differences in how competitive sport is organized in the schools in French Canada versus English Canada. It was found that differences in competitive sport participation were smaller after controls for respondents’ experience with sport during the school years. However, there remained significant francophone/anglophone differences in orientation to competitive and extra-family sport after controls for the effects of school experience and other social background factors.
Merrill J. Melnick
In order to test Hallinan’s “Anglocentric Hypothesis,” New Zealand head coaches of female netball union teams completed two mailed questionnaires. The statistical analysis was based on 177 European (69.1%) and 79 Maori (30.9%) players. An overall chi-square for Race x Playing Position was nonsignificant, χ2(6) = 8.40. Specifically, Europeans were nonsignificantly overrepresented at center, the most central, highest interacting position. Occupancy of the most tactically important playing position, goal defense, also did not significantly vary by race. Lastly, goal shoot, the position judged by the coaches as being highest in outcome control, also did not favor either race. The results are discussed in terms of the historical record of Maori women’s participation in netball, majority–minority relations in New Zealand, and several methodological issues and concerns that attend “stacking” investigations.
Lee N. Burkett, Joana Ziuraitis and Wayne T. Phillips
The effectiveness of two specific and two non-specific warm-ups on the vertical jump test for female athletes was the focus of this research. The four warm-up procedures were: (a) weighted jumping (WT), (b) submaximal vertical jumping (SUB), (c) stretching (ST), and (d) no warm-up (NW). To control for learning and fatigue, a counter-balanced design was used to test all participants over four different days. Thus all groups were tested in a predetermined order. Participants were 15 university female athletes (age 18 to 23 years). After warming up using one of the four warm-up procedures, three vertical jumps were measured and the best score was used for analysis. A single factors repeated measure analysis of variance and LSD post hoc tests revealed that the weighted jump warm-up procedure was statistically superior (p<0.01) to all other warm-up procedures. No warm-up was statistically inferior to all other warm-ups and submaximal vertical jumping was not statistically different than stretching. It was concluded; (a) performing a warmup is better than no warm-up, and (b) utilizing a weighted resistance-jumping warm-up will produce the highest scores when performing the vertical jump test for female athletes.