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Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, Hiroaki Funahashi and Popi Sotiriadou

can inform national governments and high-level sport organizations to set priorities in the strategic development of elite sport policy. To address the above-mentioned research gap, this study developed and tested a quantitative scale for measuring the perceptions of individuals toward the positive

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Kostas Alexandris, Rodoula H. Tsiotsou and Jeffrey D. James

The objective of this research was to test the application of an alternative hierarchy of effects model (affect, cognition, and conation) in the context of sponsorship. Activity involvement and team attachment (affect) were proposed to influence sponsor image and attitudes toward sponsorship (cognition), which in turn were proposed to influence consumer behavioral intentions (conation). Fans of a professional basketball team in Greece (N = 384) participated in the study. The results provided support for the alternative hierarchy of effects model and its application in the context of sponsorship. Team attachment (affect) was shown to have both a direct and indirect relationship with behavioral intentions (conation), through its influence on sponsor image and attitudes toward sponsorship (cognition). Furthermore, the attraction dimension of involvement was shown to influence team attachment. The theoretical and managerial implications of these results are discussed.

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Megan B. Shreffler, Adam R. Cocco, Regina G. Presley and Chelsea C. Police

are present in professional development programs in which educators seek means to effectively engage students and increase student persistence ( Dandy & Bendersky, 2014 ). However, concerns exist about the reliability and validity of learning style measures in the testing of the learning styles

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Shirley Cleave

This study examined the appropriateness of using Hackman and Oldham's (1976, 1980) Job Characteristics Model with a sample of university physical education and sport administrators (NV = 217). The Job Characteristics Model specifies certain relationships between the design characteristics of a job and the levels of motivation, satisfaction, and productivity experienced by the worker. It also considers the effect of individual differences in moderating the relationships. The results of this study showed strong support for only some components of the theoretical model. In particular some relationships involving growth satisfaction and autonomy were not as predicted by the model. In addition, individual differences did not function as moderators of the relationships in the model. While theoretical models can be useful in helping to explain phenomena in the field of sport management, researchers in the field must continue to test the applicability of models developed in other fields.

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Brendan O’Hallarn, Stephen L. Shapiro, Marion E. Hambrick, D.E. Wittkower, Lynn Ridinger and Craig A. Morehead

through the lens of the public sphere, even if its strict definition is not met. In fact, Habermas himself envisioned his concept as a regulative ideal for society to strive for in public interactions, rather than a strict test ( Habermas, 1962/1989 ). The clustering of thoughts through Twitter hashtags

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Lynley Ingerson and Michael L. Naraine

new test. Sandpaper-Gate In March 2018, a few months before Patrick’s appointment, the Australian men’s national cricket team was found to have cheated in an international test match with South Africa. Reports indicated that the captain, Steve Smith, the vice-captain, David Warner, and a young, up

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Jacquelyn Cuneen and M. Joy Sidwell

Internships permit sport management students to link classroom learning to the professional environment. Since internships provide students with opportunities to learn on-the-job and test their skills in the marketplace, the experiences should be uniformly beneficial to all students regardless of gender. This study was conducted to describe internship work conditions (i.e., opportunities to perform in essential marketplace functions) for male and female sport management interns assigned to ‘Big Four’ professional sport organizations. Participants were 74 sport industry professionals who supervised a total of 103 interns over a one-year period. A X2 Test of Independence found that male and female interns working in professional sport had comparable opportunities to perform and learn on the job. Differences in opportunity, hiring practices, and on-the-job benefits emerged primarily as a function of job specialization (e.g., operations, marketing, venue management), league/association, or gender of the internship supervisor rather than gender of the interns.

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Kristi Sweeney and Megan Schramm-Possinger

Understanding factors that influence live game-day attendance has garnered significant attention from both researchers and practitioners in the sport industry. Despite the National Football League’s unprecedented annual revenues, league attendance remains down, spurring large-scale investment into the game-day experience (Florio, 2008). In this case, students will perform various statistical analyses (i.e., computing chi-square tests of independence, t tests, effect sizes [Cohen’s d], and confidence intervals) to determine which factors most strongly influence fan attendance at Jacksonville Jaguars home games. Specifically, this case investigates the degree to which stadium upgrades motivate fans to attend and explores the extent to which fans support the use of public funds for stadium upgrades. Answering these questions will further equip future sport managers to make data-driven decisions regarding the utility of strategies—such as stadium projects—to enhance the game-day experience. Furthermore, students can use the knowledge gained from the case to critically analyze public investment in sport stadia as well as the ways in which consumers’ preferences are either independent of or depend on categorical variables such as gender. The case is intended for use in research methods courses and is also applicable to sport marketing, sport facility, and sport finance courses.

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David A. Pierce and Jeffrey C. Petersen

Experiential learning within sport sales is a growing component of the sport management curriculum. Assessment of student learning outcomes within these experiences is important in quantifying the effectiveness of the learning experience. This study utilized a survey to examine the change in students’ perceptions of sport sales as a result of completing an experiential, client-based sport sales program. The methodology included development and analysis of a survey instrument and application of that survey with enrolled and non-enrolled groups with pre- and post-test experiential learning assessment. Student expectations of a career in sport sales significantly decreased after program completion (t(56) = 2.33, p < .05), while their perception of skill level and preparation for a sport sales employment did not significantly change for the experimental group. These findings relate this learning experience to a realistic job preview for the students, which typically decrease an individual’s expectations toward a particular job (Premack & Wanous, 1985).

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Gi-Yong Koo, Sara Shoffner and Jeeheon Ryu

The purpose of this study was to investigate how an animated pedagogical agent (APA) affected an individual’s level of situational interest (SI) using a case study in online education. Although online learning has become popular, the lack of social cues for students in distance-learning contexts has been suggested as problematic. APA has been conceptualized to support social agency theory between students and learning contents. SI has been considered to activate student’s immediate affective response to engage in an authentic learning context. The study examined the effect of APA in a case study on triggered-SI and maintained-SI to determine the benefits of multimedia-based instruction in online learning. A three-factor model including triggered-SI, maintained-SI-feeling, and maintained-SI-value was tested. Results revealed that the use of APA in a case study more positively stimulated students’ SI specific to triggered-SI and maintained-SI-value. Therefore, the implementation of the APA in a distance education setting could benefit students’ learning and also help educators to more effectively deliver a variety of sport management content areas.