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Emerson Franchini, Stanislaw Sterkowicz, Urszula Szmatlan-Gabrys, Tomasz Gabrys and Michal Garnys

Purpose:

This study investigated the energy system contributions of judo athletes to the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT).

Methods:

Fourteen male judo athletes performed the SJFT, which comprised three periods of judo activity (A = 15 s, B and C = 30 s) interspersed with 10 s rest intervals. During this test, one athlete threw two others positioned 6 m from each other using the ippon-seoi-nage technique. The fractions of the aerobic, anaerobic alactic and anaerobic lactic systems were calculated based on oxygen uptake, the fast component of excess postexercise oxygen uptake, and changes in net blood lactate, respectively. The contribution of the three energy systems was compared using a repeated measures analysis of variance and Bonferroni’s multiple comparisons test. Compound symmetry, or sphericity, was determined by Mauchly’s test. A level of significance of 5% (P < .05) was adopted in all analyses.

Results:

The alactic energy system presented a higher (F = 20.9; P < .001; power observed = 1.0) contribution (86.8 ± 23.6 kJ; 42.3 ± 5.9%) during the test when compared with both aerobic (57.1 ± 11.3 kJ; 28.2 ± 2.9%) and lactic (58.9 ± 12.1 kJ; 29.5 ± 6.2%) energy systems (P < .001 for both comparisons).

Conclusions:

The higher alactic contribution seems to be a consequence of the high-intensity efforts performed during the test, and its intermittent nature. Thus, when using the SJFT, coaches are evaluating mainly their athletes’ anaerobic alactic system, which can be considered to be the most predominant system contributing to the actions (techniques) performed in the match.

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Billy Sperlich, Christoph Zinner, David Trenk and Hans-Christer Holmberg

Purpose:

To examine whether a 3-min all-out test can be used to obtain accurate values for the maximal lactate steady state (v MLSS) and/or peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) of well-trained runners.

Methods:

The 15 male volunteers (25 ± 5 y, 181 ± 6 cm, 76 ± 7 kg, VO2peak 69.3 ± 9.5 mL · kg−1 · min−1) performed a ramp test, a 3-min all-out test, and several submaximal 30-min runs at constant paces of v END (mean velocity during the last 30 s of the 3-min all-out test) itself and v END +0.2, +0.1, –0.1, –0.2, –0.3, or –0.4 m/s.

Results:

v MLSS and v END were correlated (r = .69, P = .004), although v MLSS was lower (mean difference: 0.26 ± 0.32 m/s, 95% CI –.44 to –.08 m/s, P = .007, effect size = 0.65). The VO2peak values derived from the ramp and 3-min all-out tests were not correlated (r = .41, P = .12), with a mean difference of 523 ± 1002 mL (95% CI –31 to 1077 mL).

Conclusion:

A 3-min all-out test does not provide a suitable measure of v MLSS or VO2peak for well-trained runners.

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Rahul Marwaha, Susan J. Hall, Christopher A. Knight and Slobodan Jaric

The aim of the study was to reveal specific aspects of impaired hand function in mildly affected multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Static manipulation tasks were tested in 13 mildly impaired (EDSS 1.5-4) MS patients and 13 age and gender matched controls. The tasks were based either on presumably visually (i.e., feedback) controlled tracing of depicted patterns of load force (LF; produced by symmetric bimanual tension and/or compression applied against an externally fixed device) or on predominantly feed-forward controlled amplitudes of sinusoidal patterns of LF. The task variables (based on accuracy of exerting the required LF pattern) suggested poor performance of MS subjects in feedback, but not in the feed-forward controlled tasks. The patients also revealed higher GF/LF ratio in all tasks. However, the coordination of GF and LF appeared to be comparable in the two groups. These results continue to support the chosen experimental paradigm and suggest that in mildly affected MS patients, sensorimotor deficits and overgripping precede the decoupling of grip and load forces observed in more severely affected patients.

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Brendan T. O’Keeffe, Alan E. Donnelly and Ciaran MacDonncha

, 41 ). Health-related physical fitness can be objectively and accurately measured in laboratory settings by qualified technicians using sophisticated instruments. However, as indicated by Espana-Romero et al ( 13 ), such tests are not feasible for administration at population level. Field-based tests

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Antonio Dello Iacono, Stephanie Valentin, Mark Sanderson and Israel Halperin

Sport scientists and applied practitioners regularly monitor and prescribe training programs based on assessments of force production tests. Two examples of such tests are the isometric midthigh pull (IMTP) and the isometric squat tests. 1 , 2 Both require subjects to stand on a force plate and

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Bouwien Smits-Engelsman, Wendy Aertssen and Emmanuel Bonney

characteristics required for optimal agility. These include anthropometric characteristics (eg, body mass index [BMI]); leg muscle properties (eg, muscle power); anaerobic capacity; and motor coordination ( 21 , 22 ). This would suggest that a true agility test should be able to measure all these attributes

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Stephanie C. Field, Christina B. Esposito Bosma and Viviene A. Temple

The Test of Gross Motor Development–Second Edition (TGMD-2; Ulrich, 2000 ) has been one of the most widely used process-orientated measures of motor skill proficiency, with more than 1,000 citations in the international literature since it was published. Attaching meaning to raw TGMD-2 scores has

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Kamila Grandolfi, Vandre Sosciarelli and Marcos Polito

The development of muscular strength can be measured by a 1-repetition maximum (1RM) test. 1 Nevertheless, previous studies have shown that some individuals can lift higher loads when 1RM tests are repeated between 1 and 4 days. 2 This is explained by the neural coordination between the motor

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Mark G.L. Sayers and Stephen Bishop

measure of performance. 18 – 22 These studies have suggested that utilizing an explosive medicine ball push-press (MBP-P) test simulates the actions and velocities of sport-specific actions undertaken in a variety of ball sports. However, a confounding aspect within most of these studies has been the

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Kate M. Sansum, Max E. Weston, Bert Bond, Emma J. Cockcroft, Amy O’Connor, Owen W. Tomlinson, Craig A. Williams and Alan R. Barker

attainment of V ˙ O 2 max ( 36 ). However, as only between 10% and 50% of children display a plateau across different testing protocols ( 5 , 29 , 30 , 33 ), and the reasons behind this still being unclear, the term V ˙ O 2 peak is routinely used to denote the highest V ˙ O 2 recorded without a