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Maureen R. Weiss

? How do these worldviews inform present research trends? • Perspectives: Which theories emerged as appropriate for studying youth motivation in sport? What are their commonalities and nuances? What empirical findings cut across theories, highlighting their overlap in sources and outcomes of motivated

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Beth A. Lewis, LeighAnn H. Forsyth, Bernardine M. Pinto, Beth C. Bock, Mary Roberts and Bess H. Marcus

Behavioral science theories have been used to develop physical activity interventions; however, little is known as to whether these interventions are effective due to changes in constructs related to these theories. Specifically, if the intervention is successful, does it work for the reasons hypothesized by the theory underlying it? The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of particular theoretical constructs among participants (n = 150) who had been randomly assigned to a physical activity intervention based on the Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory (i.e., tailored group) or to a standard care group. Participants in the tailored group reported greater increases in behavioral processes and self-efficacy from baseline to 3 months than participants in the standard-care group. No between-group differences were found for cognitive processes and decisional balance. This study demonstrates that theory-based physical activity interventions may be effective through changes in particular theoretical constructs.

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Kelly J. Cole

In the target article Mark Latash has argued that there is but a single bona-fide theory for hand motor control (referent configuration theory). If this is true, and research is often phenomenological, then we must admit that the science of hand motor control is immature. While describing observations under varying conditions is a crucial (but early) stage of the science of any field, it is also true that the key to maturing any science is to vigorously subject extant theories and budding laws to critical experimentation. If competing theories are absent at the present time is it time for scientists to focus their efforts on maturing the science of hand motor control through critical testing of this long-standing theory (and related collections of knowledge such as the uncontrolled manifold)?

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Jordan A. Carlson, James F. Sallis, Nicole Wagner, Karen J. Calfas, Kevin Patrick, Lisa M. Groesz and Gregory J. Norman

Background:

Psychosocial factors have been related to physical activity (PA) and are used to evaluate mediation in PA interventions.

Methods:

Brief theory-based psychosocial scales were compiled from existing measures and evaluated. Study 1 assessed factor structure and construct validity with self-reported PA and accelerometry in overweight/obese men (N = 441) and women (N = 401). Study 2 assessed 2-week reliability and internal consistency in 49 college students.

Results:

Confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit in men and women (CFI = .90; RMSEA = .05). Construct validity was supported for change strategies (r = .29–.46), self-efficacy (r = .19–.22) and enjoyment (r = .21–.33) in men and women, and for cons in women (r = –.19 to –.20). PA pros (r = –.02 to .11) and social support (r = –.01 to .12) were not supported for construct validity. Test-retest reliability ICCs ranged from .49–.81. Internal consistency alphas ranged from .55–.90. Reliability was supported for most scales with further testing needed for cons (alphas = .55–.63) and enjoyment (ICC = 49).

Conclusions:

Many of the brief scales demonstrated adequate reliability and validity, while some need further development. The use of these scales could advance research and practice in the promotion of PA.

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Kim C. Graber and Amelia Mays Woods

education environments, Ennis was an educator at heart and was deeply interested in the needs and experiences of school-age children participating in physical education classes. Much of her work was guided by social constructivist and social justice theories that promoted equitable education in which

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Cathy McKay, Jung Yeon Park and Martin Block

The importance of theoretically oriented research in adapted physical education is well documented ( Sherrill & O’Connor, 1999 ; Slininger, Sherrill, & Jankowski, 2000 ; Sutlive & Ulrich, 1998 ; Tripp & Sherrill, 1991 ). Tripp and Sherrill ( 1991 ) explained that theories allow researchers to

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Kimberlee A. Gretebeck, Kaitlyn Radius, David R. Black, Randall J. Gretebeck, Rosemary Ziemba and Lawrence T. Glickman

Background:

Regular walking improves overall health and functional ability of older adults, yet most are sedentary. Dog ownership/pet responsibility may increase walking in older adults. Goals of this study were to identify factors that influence older adult walking and compare physical activity, functional ability and psychosocial characteristics by dog ownership status.

Methods:

In this cross-sectional study, older adults (65−95 years of age, n = 1091) completed and returned questionnaires via postal mail. Measures included: Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, Physical Functioning Questionnaire and Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire.

Results:

Dog owner/dog walkers (n = 77) reported significantly (P < .05) more total walking, walking frequency, leisure and total physical activity and higher total functional ability than dog owner/nondog walkers (n = 83) and nondog owners (n = 931). Dog owner/nondog walkers reported lower intention and perceived behavioral control and a less positive attitude than dog owner/dog walkers (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Dog owner/dog walkers were significantly different than the nondog walker groups in nearly every study variable. Many dog owners (48.1%) reported walking their dogs regularly and the dog owner/dog walkers participated in nearly 50% more total walking than the 2 nondog walking groups, suggesting that pet obligation may provide a purposeful activity that motivates some older dog owners to walk.

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Samuel Y. Todd, Charles W. Jones and Walker Ross

. Evaluate Shelley’s motivation based on Adam’s Equity Theory. What can Thad do to restore equity? 2. Using Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, describe the valences of each of Thad’s staff members. 3. How do “perceived injustices” (as opposed to actual injustices) affect one’s behavior or attitudes? Use the examples

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Alex Oliver, Paul J. McCarthy and Lindsey Burns

monitoring system and attempts to control attention are provided through ironic-processing theory ( Wegner, 1994 ). Ironic processing outlines the paradox of attempts to control a wandering mind perhaps causing it to wander farther. In ironic-processing theory, Wegner ( 1994 ) outlined that under anxiety or

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David Pierce and James Johnson

Determining if an individual is a fit for an occupation is critical for job seekers, hiring managers, and those providing vocational guidance ( Hughey & Hughey, 2009 ). The degree of similarity between a person and the environment is the key measure in the theory of person–environment fit (PE Fit