The importance of theoretically oriented research in adapted physical education is well documented ( Sherrill & O’Connor, 1999 ; Slininger, Sherrill, & Jankowski, 2000 ; Sutlive & Ulrich, 1998 ; Tripp & Sherrill, 1991 ). Tripp and Sherrill ( 1991 ) explained that theories allow researchers to
Cathy McKay, Jung Yeon Park and Martin Block
Alex Oliver, Paul J. McCarthy and Lindsey Burns
monitoring system and attempts to control attention are provided through ironic-processing theory ( Wegner, 1994 ). Ironic processing outlines the paradox of attempts to control a wandering mind perhaps causing it to wander farther. In ironic-processing theory, Wegner ( 1994 ) outlined that under anxiety or
Niki Tsangaridou and Mary O’Sullivan
This research was conducted to describe the relationship between physical education teachers’ educational theories of action and theories-in-use. The question addressed was, What are the educational theories and practices of physical education teachers, and to what degree do their educational theories guide their professional practices? Data were collected through class observations, formal and informal interviews, vignette interviews, and journals. Data were analyzed inductively. Results suggested that the four teachers in this study held strong and well articulated views about student learning and what constitutes a physically educated student. They agreed that the primary goal of a physical education program was the development of skills. They believed that guided student practice was important for student learning. The selection and implementation of teaching practices demonstrated the teachers’ commitment to gender equity and the needs and abilities of their students. There were only three discrepancies between the participants’ theories of action and their theories-in-use. These related to student independence, student choice of content, and the process of cooperation and negotiation. Otherwise the teachers’ theories-in-use were consistent with their theories of action. The results from this study do not substantiate the notion of a level of discrepancy between teachers’ espoused theories and professional practices as presented in the literature (Argyris & Schon, 1974; Knight & Smith, 1989).
K. Andrew R. Richards and Thomas J. Templin
perspective is to adopt occupational socialization theory as a lens to understand how the physical education profession reproduces itself through intergenerational socialization ( Richards, Housner, & Templin, 2018 ). The purpose of this chapter is to present a conceptual framework for understanding PETE
T. Nicole Kirk and Justin A. Haegele
specific predictors or correlates of a desired behavior, and in turn, research based upon existing theory affords an opportunity to put the constructs of a theoretical model to the test in a systematic approach ( Rothman, 2004 ). Within the field of adapted physical activity research, prominent scholars
Anna Stodter and Christopher J. Cushion
learning theories and their application’ alongside ‘a rich set of critiqued experiences within the domain of operation’, allowing them to ‘develop and monitor relevant learning environments, tasks and communication strategies to meet learning goals’ ( Abraham et al., 2013 , p. 179). Despite necessary
Richard J. Butler and Lew Hardy
The importance of discovering the athlete’s perspective of his or her own notions of self and performance is discussed with reference to Personal Construct Theory (Bannister & Fransella, 1986; Kelly, 1955). The athlete’s constructions are displayed in the form of performance profiles and the methodology of developing such profiles is described. The application of performance profiles is illustrated with a number of examples from elite athletes over a range of Olympic sports.
Grace Goc-Karp and Dorothy B. Zakrajsek
This study determined and compared the planning models taught in preservice physical education (theoretical) with those practiced in junior high school physical education (reality). Empirical and ethnographic data were collected through a survey of college professors (n = 59), close-ended (n = 36) and open-ended surveys of teachers (n = 28), and a nonparticipant observation study (n = 4). The results indicated that the theoretical model focused on planning for student learning whereas the reality model focused on planning for teaching. The personal philosophy of the teachers, coaching commitments, the teachers’ routines of planning and teaching, and the students’ reactions were major influences on how teachers planned and why they planned. Reasons for lack of transfer of the planning model from theory into practice are discussed and suggestions for further investigation are made.
John H. Kerr
In this article, the basic postulates of reversal theory are described, and the potential of the theory for professional practice in sport psychology is clarified. At focus is the reversal theory approach to athlete problem assessment (especially reversal process problems), intervention treatment and strategies, and the behavior of the successful therapist towards the athlete. Reversal theory’s comprehensive conceptual model, together with applications of the theory in psychotherapy, are used to support arguments for an eclectic but systematic approach to intervention work with sport performers.
April Tripp and Claudine Sherrill
This paper emphasizes that attitude research in adapted physical education must become increasingly theory oriented. Likewise, teacher training must broaden to include scholarly study in relation to social psychology and attitude theory. To facilitate progress in this direction, nine attitude theories have been abstracted from the literature and reviewed under four general headings: learning-behavior theories, cognitive integration theories, consistency theories, and reasoned action theory. Individual theories presented are (a) contact, (b) mediated generalization, (c) assimilation-contrast or persuasive communication, (d) stigma, (e) interpersonal relations, (f) group dynamics, (g) cognitive dissonance, and (h) reasoned action. Illustrations of how each theory applies to selected studies in adapted physical education research and practice are offered, and a lengthy reference list provides both primary and secondary sources for the further study of attitudes.