? How do these worldviews inform present research trends? • Perspectives: Which theories emerged as appropriate for studying youth motivation in sport? What are their commonalities and nuances? What empirical findings cut across theories, highlighting their overlap in sources and outcomes of motivated
K. Andrew R. Richards, Kim C. Graber and Amelia Mays Woods
education environments, Ennis was an educator at heart and was deeply interested in the needs and experiences of school-age children participating in physical education classes. Much of her work was guided by social constructivist and social justice theories that promoted equitable education in which
Thomas L. McKenzie
school districts because their elementary schools were not complying with the state physical education time requirement of 200 physical education minutes per 10 days ( Adams, 2015 ). I titled this paper “Physical Activity Within School Contexts: The Bigger Bang Theory” for two main reasons. First, in
Carrie W. LeCrom, Brendan Dwyer and Gregory Greenhalgh
field of study is ‘ready’ for - and indeed worthy of - its own theories or if the trend of ‘borrowing’ and applying theories and frameworks from parent disciplines - such as sociology, management, gender studies, cultural studies, anthropology, and psychology - will continue into the future
Simon C. Darnell, Richard Giulianotti, P. David Howe and Holly Collison
innovation, this paper brings the tenets of Actor Network Theory to bear on current debates in the field of SDP, and explores its utility for ongoing analyses. The paper proceeds in six parts. In the next section, we discuss two tensions in recent SDP research that signify to us the need for new approaches
Kathryn Henne and Madeleine Pape
possibility of such voices being heard or understood. 2 We look to Southern theory, to date underutilized in sport studies, as a way to illuminate this dilemma in sports policy. Southern theory draws critical attention to global periphery-center relations, with a focus on the power relationships underpinning
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Jessica L. Siegele, Allison B. Smith and Robin Hardin
these positions of leadership using career construction theory (CCT) as a theoretical framework. Career Construction Theory CCT focuses on exploring what individuals do and why they do it from an interpretive framework: How do individuals construct, process, and negotiate meaning ( Savickas, 2005 )? CCT
Earl Smith and Angela Hattery
There have been many discussions about diversity and the value that it brings to the workplace (Ely & Thomas, 2001). Although sport has been deemed a model of diversity, where people of different races and ethnicities comingle as participants and spectators, there is a serious disconnect between perceptions of this diversity and the reality that defines the lack of racial diversity in the management (i.e., coaching and leadership) of sport. The purpose of this essay is to provide an exploration and analysis of the varied ways in which race may influence sport management experiences and opportunities. We frame this analysis through race relation theory, symbolic racism theory, social distance theory, and the concepts of segregation and power. The inferences and implications of our essay are centered on the undercurrent of the status of African American men in sport leadership, who are severely under-represented despite their prominent contribution to the financial vitality of the sport industry as players. The essay concludes with several policies and practices for improving racial diversity in sport management.
Ronald E. McCarville and Robert P. Copeland
Public, not-for-profit, and private sector sport groups are increasingly exploring innovative means of generating funds. Sponsorship represents one promising revenue alternative. This paper uses exchange theory to discuss and describe sport sponsorship and offer propositions. These propositions are based generally on the principles of exchange and often reflect current practice. As such they offer some insight to those hoping to initiate and maintain sponsorship agreements. All have yet to be empirically verified within the context of sport sponsorship, however, so they may also be used to guide research efforts. They suggest that partners choose sponsorship opportunities that offer the most valued rewards with the greatest probability of success. It is suggested that past successes may dictate future sponsorship decisions. Further, multiple-reward options may be most successful in encouraging subsequent contributions. Although this discussion takes place in the context of sport sponsorship, both the theoretical perspective and propositions are relevant to a broad spectrum of sponsorship settings.
Donald Chu and David Griffey
The contact theory of racial integration is examined in this survey of the behaviors and attitudes of secondary school students and student-athletes. Self-report questionnaires were completed by 1,082 subjects in the urban upstate New York area. Subjects were evaluated on two behavioral (race of students talked to, race of students phoned) and three attitudinal (like more friends of other races, choose interracial school, or races smarter than others) dependent variables. Dependent measures were evaluated relative to their correlations with a number of independent variables (athlete/nonathlete, individual or cooperative sport played, sport experience, won-lost record, exposure to minorities, sex, social status). Results of the study argue for consideration of the contact theory’s applicability to the sport situation.