. Evaluate Shelley’s motivation based on Adam’s Equity Theory. What can Thad do to restore equity? 2. Using Vroom’s Expectancy Theory, describe the valences of each of Thad’s staff members. 3. How do “perceived injustices” (as opposed to actual injustices) affect one’s behavior or attitudes? Use the examples
Samuel Y. Todd, Charles W. Jones and Walker Ross
David Pierce and James Johnson
Determining if an individual is a fit for an occupation is critical for job seekers, hiring managers, and those providing vocational guidance ( Hughey & Hughey, 2009 ). The degree of similarity between a person and the environment is the key measure in the theory of person–environment fit (PE Fit
Carrie W. LeCrom, Brendan Dwyer and Gregory Greenhalgh
field of study is ‘ready’ for - and indeed worthy of - its own theories or if the trend of ‘borrowing’ and applying theories and frameworks from parent disciplines - such as sociology, management, gender studies, cultural studies, anthropology, and psychology - will continue into the future
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Jessica L. Siegele, Allison B. Smith and Robin Hardin
these positions of leadership using career construction theory (CCT) as a theoretical framework. Career Construction Theory CCT focuses on exploring what individuals do and why they do it from an interpretive framework: How do individuals construct, process, and negotiate meaning ( Savickas, 2005 )? CCT
Earl Smith and Angela Hattery
There have been many discussions about diversity and the value that it brings to the workplace (Ely & Thomas, 2001). Although sport has been deemed a model of diversity, where people of different races and ethnicities comingle as participants and spectators, there is a serious disconnect between perceptions of this diversity and the reality that defines the lack of racial diversity in the management (i.e., coaching and leadership) of sport. The purpose of this essay is to provide an exploration and analysis of the varied ways in which race may influence sport management experiences and opportunities. We frame this analysis through race relation theory, symbolic racism theory, social distance theory, and the concepts of segregation and power. The inferences and implications of our essay are centered on the undercurrent of the status of African American men in sport leadership, who are severely under-represented despite their prominent contribution to the financial vitality of the sport industry as players. The essay concludes with several policies and practices for improving racial diversity in sport management.
Ronald E. McCarville and Robert P. Copeland
Public, not-for-profit, and private sector sport groups are increasingly exploring innovative means of generating funds. Sponsorship represents one promising revenue alternative. This paper uses exchange theory to discuss and describe sport sponsorship and offer propositions. These propositions are based generally on the principles of exchange and often reflect current practice. As such they offer some insight to those hoping to initiate and maintain sponsorship agreements. All have yet to be empirically verified within the context of sport sponsorship, however, so they may also be used to guide research efforts. They suggest that partners choose sponsorship opportunities that offer the most valued rewards with the greatest probability of success. It is suggested that past successes may dictate future sponsorship decisions. Further, multiple-reward options may be most successful in encouraging subsequent contributions. Although this discussion takes place in the context of sport sponsorship, both the theoretical perspective and propositions are relevant to a broad spectrum of sponsorship settings.
Jeremy Hapeta, Rochelle Stewart-Withers and Farah Palmer
This article seeks to make higher level contributions to the nexus between theory and practice within sport for social change by shining light on Indigenous theory and practice in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). First, we acknowledge the forward and timely thinking of this special issue for providing
Catherine Quatman and Packianathan Chelladurai
As an emerging research approach, social network theory and analysis has been embraced and effectively applied in disciplines that have overlapping interests with sport management researchers including such fields as organizational behavior and sport sociology. Although a number of sport management scholars have investigated network-related concepts, to date no sport management studies have fully utilized the analytical tools that social network theory and analysis have to offer. In conjunction with a discussion about the ontological, epistemological, and methodological perspectives associated with network analysis, this article uses several examples from the sport management and organizational behavior bodies of literature to illustrate a number of the advantageous techniques and insights social network theory and analysis can offer. These examples are meant to provide a general understanding of the utility and applicability of the social network theory and analysis and potentially inspire sport management researchers to adopt a social network lens in their future research endeavors.
Janet S. Fink, Heidi M. Parker, Martin Brett and Julie Higgins
In the current article, we extend the literature on fan identification and social identity theory by examining the effects of unscrupulous off-field behaviors of athletes. In doing so, we drew from both social identity theory and Heider’s balance theory to hypothesize a significant interaction between fan identification level and leadership response on fans’ subsequent levels of identification. An experimental study was performed and a 2 (high, low identification) × 2 (weak, strong leadership response) ANOVA was conducted with the pre to post difference score in team identification as the dependent variable. There was a significant interaction effect (F (2, 80) = 23.71, p < .001) which explained 23% of the variance in the difference between prepost test scores. The results provide evidence that unscrupulous acts by athletes off the field of play can impact levels of team identification, particularly for highly identified fans exposed to a weak leadership response. The results are discussed relative to appropriate theory. Practical implications and suggestions for future research are also forwarded.
Galen Clavio, Lauren M. Burch and Evan L. Frederick
The purpose of this study was to employ systems theory to analyze the social network of a Big Ten football team’s Twitter community. An identifiable network was found among the observed actors (N = 139), with fan accounts composing the largest percentage of the network. The number of observed reciprocal interactions was low, only 11.8% of the interactions and only 21.5% of the nodes. Traditionalmedia accounts frequently interacted with other media accounts, while fans interacted primarily with other fans. Overall, nontraditional-media accounts’ users were most focused on interactivity. Team-related accounts were almost nonexistent in the interactive network. A systems-theory-based network was found in terms of input, transformation, and output components. The feedback loop was the weak link in the network, indicating a possible lack of importance of direct feedback in Twitter social networks.