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Eric Foch and Clare E. Milner

joint or segment angle at 1 time point. In particular, frontal plane pelvis–frontal plane thigh and frontal plane thigh–transverse plane shank coordination patterns affect hip and knee motion. In addition, frontal plane hip–transverse plane hip coordination patterns illustrate coupled hip motions during

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Kevin M. Cross, Kelly K. Gurka, Susan Saliba, Mark Conaway and Jay Hertel

differences in general injury rates or patterns exist among sexes or within age groups of adolescents. 3 – 5 , 12 , 14 Muscle strains are among the most common injuries at all levels of soccer. Specifically, thigh strains are among the most common injury among high school soccer players. 6 , 8 , 10 , 12 , 13

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Alvin R. Loosli and June Quick

Although shoulder and knee injuries are the most common injuries in swimmers, thigh/groin strains have recently been identified as a critical area in elite competitive breaststroke swimmers. A survey of high-level collegiate breaststroke swimmers revealed a 33% incidence of this hip flexor adductor injury. A comprehensive treatment and prevention program is detailed in this paper.

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Hans Kainz, Hoa X. Hoang, Chris Stockton, Roslyn R. Boyd, David G. Lloyd and Christopher P. Carty

line defined by the centers of spheres fitted to the medial and lateral half of the trochlea 4 , 19 Scaling Approaches The pelvis, thigh, and shank of the generic ‘gait2392’ OpenSim model 5 , 20 were scaled using the experimental marker locations from the static trials alone or

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Eric Maylia, John A. Fairclough, Leonard D.M. Nokes and Michael D. Jones

Thigh girth is often used as an indicator of muscle hypertrophy or atrophy during the rehabilitation process following knee surgery. The measurement of thigh girth, using a conventional plastic tape measure, in an attempt to detect muscle hypertrophy or atrophy may be misleading. It is an inaccurate measure of thigh muscle bulk. Although the sample size is small, the results show that measurements are heavily biased by the expectations of observers, with the result that a considerable change in thigh girth is likely to be ignored.

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Dai Sugimoto, Benton E. Heyworth, Brandon A. Yates, Dennis E. Kramer, Mininder S. Kocher and Lyle J. Micheli

-to-play” criteria, as early graft failure represents a relatively common finding in younger ACLR populations. 9 There are many variations in “return-to-play” tests, and commonly applied basic physical measurements include thigh circumference, knee range of motion (ROM), muscular strength, and hop tests. 10 – 16

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Bhupinder Singh, Thomas D. Brown, John J. Callaghan and H. John Yack

During seated forward reaching tasks in obese individuals, excessive abdominal tissue can come into contact with the anterior thigh. This soft tissue apposition acts as a mechanical restriction, altering functional biomechanics at the hip, and causing difficulty in certain daily activities such as bending down, or picking up objects from the floor. The purpose of the study was to investigate the contact forces and associated moments exerted by the abdomen on the thigh during seated forward-reaching tasks in adult obese individuals. Ten healthy subjects (age 58.1 ± 4.4) with elevated BMI (39.04 ± 5.02) participated in the study. Contact pressures between the abdomen and thigh were measured using a Tekscan Conformat pressure-mapping sensor during forward-reaching tasks. Kinematic and force plate data were obtained using an infrared motion capture system. The mean abdomen-thigh contact force was 10.17 ± 5.18% of body weight, ranging from 57.8 N to 200 N. Net extensor moment at the hip decreased by mean 16.5 ± 6.44% after accounting for the moment generated by abdomen-thigh tissue contact. In obese individuals, abdomen-thigh contact decreases the net moment at the hip joint during seated forward-reaching activities. This phenomenon should be taken into consideration for accurate biomechanical modeling in these individuals.

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Jill Alexander and David Rhodes

distal to the muscle belly. 27 Due to no anterior thigh cooling in the previous study, we cannot allude as to whether differences occur regarding cooling location and severity of effects on muscle concentric strength in the lower limb. 27 In consideration of the available literature, a comparison

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Eric Maylia, John A. Fairclough, Leonard D.M. Nokes and Michael D. Jones

The purpose of this study was to assess whether measurements of thigh bulk taken with a tape measure would give an indication of muscle power. Eleven male patients, all undergoing unilateral menisectomies, performed exercises of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles during concentric loading at 60°/s. The patients were tested three times over a 12-week period: one day before the operation and 2 and 12 weeks after the operation. Thigh girth was recorded, using a conventional plastic tape measure, 10 cm from the top of the patella in each of the three test sessions. The results of this study demonstrated that muscle power cannot be predicted from thigh girth measurements.

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Madoka Ogawa, Naotoshi Mitsukawa, Michael G. Bemben and Takashi Abe


Previous studies investigated the relationship between ultrasound-derived anatomical muscle thickness (MTH) and individual muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle volume in several limb and trunk muscles; however, the adductor muscle that contributes to hip adduction and pelvic stabilization, as well as balance ability, has not been studied.


To examine the relationship between MTH of the lower, middle, and upper thigh measured by B-mode ultrasound and the muscle CSA and volume of adductor muscle obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the possibility of predicting adductor muscle CSA/volume using ultrasound-derived MTH.


University research laboratory.


10 men and 10 women (20–41 y old) volunteered to participate in this study.

Main Outcome Measures:

A series of continuous muscle CSAs along the thigh were measured by MRI scans (1.5-T scanner, GE Signa). In each slice, the anatomical CSA of the adductors was analyzed, and the muscle volume was calculated by multiplying muscle CSA by slice thickness. Thigh MTH was measured by B-mode ultrasound (Aloka SSD-500) at 5 sites (anterior 30%, 50%, and 70% and posterior 50% and 70% of thigh length).


A strong correlation was observed between anterior 30% MTH and 30% adductor CSA in men (r = .845, P < .002) and women (r = .952, P < .001) and in both groups combined (r = .922, P < .001). Anterior 30% MTH was also strongly correlated to adductor muscle volume when combined with thigh length (n = 20, r = .949, P < .001). However, there were moderate or nonsignificant correlations between anterior and posterior 50% and 70% MTH and adductor muscle CSA/volume.


The results suggest that MTH in the upper portion of anterior thigh best reflects adductor muscle CSA or muscle volume, while the lower portions of the anterior and posterior sites are least likely to predict adductor muscle size.