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Danielle Symons Downs, Guy C. LeMasurier and Jennifer M. DiNallo

Background:

Research examining women’s pregnancy physical activity (PA) behaviors with objective measures is scant. Therefore, 2 studies were conducted to determine the feasibility of pregnant women wearing pedometers and to examine women’s self-reported and objectively measured PA behaviors.

Methods:

Participants were pregnant women (Study 1 N = 50, Study 2 N = 30) who completed the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) and wore a Yamax pedometer for 3 consecutive days during free living at 20- and 32-weeks gestation.

Results:

As predicted in Study 1, we found (a) 100% participant agreement in wearing the pedometer and (b) LTEQ min and pedometer-determined indices classified 67% to 86% of the participants as insufficiently active at 20-weeks gestation. In Study 2, as hypothesized, (a) mean steps/d, LTEQ total, strenuous, and mild min of PA were positively associated at 20- and 32-weeks gestation; (b) mean steps/d and LTEQ strenuous min significantly declined from 20- to 32-weeks gestation; and (c) more women were classified as sedentary and low active at 32-weeks (73%) compared with 20-weeks gestation (50%).

Conclusions:

These findings are consistent with previous epidemiological evidence documenting the decline in women’s PA behaviors across the trimesters. They also illustrate that pedometer-determined indices might be a useful tool facilitating PA adoption and maintenance during pregnancy.

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Alexander H.K. Montoye, Jordana Dahmen, Nigel Campbell and Christopher P. Connolly

alternate body location. In a previous study, Connolly et al. ( 2011 ) examined accuracy of four hip-worn PA monitors (3 pedometers, 1 accelerometer) for step counting during treadmill walking in second and third trimester pregnant women, finding that only two of the devices (both pedometers: New Lifestyle

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Estelle D. Watson, Mireille N. M. Van Poppel, Rachel A. Jones, Shane A Norris and Lisa K. Micklesfield

Background:

Although physical activity during pregnancy may be beneficial, the prenatal period is a vulnerable time for decreasing physical activity levels and increasing sedentary time.

Methods:

This longitudinal cohort study measured physical activity using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in singleton, pregnant women in the second (14–18 wk gestation; n = 332) and third trimester (29–33 wk; n = 256).

Results:

There was a significant decrease in total MVPA (MET mins/wk) between the second and third trimester (P = .01). The majority of physical activity time was spent in walking for transport (80%), and less than 2% in recreational activities. In both trimesters, being married was inversely associated with walking for transport (second trimester: β = –0.12 95% CI = –0.31 to –0.02, third trimester: β = –0.17 95% CI = –0.47 to –0.07) and owning a car was positively associated with recreational physical activity (second trimester: β = 0.16 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.32, third trimester: β = 0.17 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.27). The women spent an average of 5 hours per day sitting.

Conclusions:

The low and declining levels of physical activity during pregnancy in this population are a concern. Interventions that include lifestyle education and provision of accessible recreational physical activity programs for pregnant women are needed.

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Tamara R. Cohen, Hugues Plourde and Kristine G. Koski

Background:

The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) assesses physical activity practices of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to identify specific pregnancy practices that were associated with a healthy gestational weight gain (GWG).

Methods:

Associations between PPAQ scores, pedometer steps, energy intakes (EI), energy expenditures (EE), and rate of GWG were assessed for 61 pregnant women in their second or third trimester during a home visit. Principle component analyses (PCA) were used to cluster PPAQ questions into Factors associated with either rate or total GWG, physical activity (PA), EE, EI, and parity.

Results:

PCA identified 3 Factors: Factor 1 associated EE with parity and child care; Factor 2 clustered several structured exercise activities; and Factor 3 grouped walking, playing with pets, and shopping with pedometer steps. Only Factor 3 clustered steps with weekly rate of GWG. EI was not associated with PA or GWG.

Conclusions:

PCA analysis identified 15 of 32 PPAQ questions that were related to increased physical activity in pregnant women, but only walking and pedometer steps were associated with GWG. Our analysis supports daily walking as the preferred PA for achieving a healthy rate of GWG.

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Kelly Mattran, Lanay M. Mudd, Rebecca A. Rudey and Jeannette S.C. Kelly

Background:

Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy has maternal benefits, but effects on offspring have not often been considered. This study aimed to determine associations among trimester-specific LTPA during pregnancy and toddler size.

Methods:

Women (n = 300) were recruited while pregnant in 2006. At follow-up (2008), women reported demographics; recalled type, duration, and frequency of trimester-specific LTPA (MET·min/wk); and rated their toddler’s current LTPA level (more, same, or less than others their age). A subset (n = 23) volunteered to have maternal and toddler height, weight, and body fat measured. Maternal body mass index (BMI) and toddler weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) were calculated.

Results:

Median toddler WHZ was 0.6 (range −0.5 to 2.9). In Spearman correlations, third trimester LTPA was marginally associated with lower toddler weight (r s = −0.39, P = .06) and WHZ (r s = −0.40, P = .06), but no other measures of maternal LTPA and toddler body size were related. Birth weight z-score was positively associated with toddler weight (r s = 0.51, P = .01) but negatively associated with percent body fat (r s= −0.46, P = .03). Measures of maternal size were unassociated with toddler size.

Conclusions:

These results provide preliminary support for LTPA during late pregnancy to have a lasting effect on offspring size.

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Esra Uzelpasaci, Türkan Akbayrak, Serap Özgül, Ceren Orhan, Emine Baran, Gülbala Nakip, Sinan Beksac and Semra Topuz

pregnancy examinations at Hacettepe University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, were screened for inclusion criteria. The study included 151 pregnant women, aged 18–40 years, who were in the first, second, or third trimester of pregnancy, were literate and volunteered to participate in this

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Eduardo L. Caputo, Paulo H. Ferreira, Manuela L. Ferreira, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Marlos R. Domingues, Debra Shirley and Marcelo C. Silva

) were determined through the following questions: “What physical activities did you engage in this period?” “How many times a week?” and “How long did each session usually take?” The following periods were investigated: 3 months prior to pregnancy and during the first, second, and third trimesters of

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Lindsey M. Russo, Megan W. Harvey, Penelope Pekow and Lisa Chasan-Taber

-specific effects among predominantly non-Hispanic white women. For example, in a cohort of 150 pregnant women in Taiwan, Ko et al 21 found that each unit increase in recalled total physical activity in the third trimester was associated with a 36% reduction in odds of cesarean delivery (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0

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Ryota Nishiyori and Beverly D. Ulrich

. The authors concluded that “development of gross motor control in utero emerges in the presence of dynamic and interactive environmental factors” (p. 1). During the third trimester, when fetuses have been observed producing more complex actions, one of the classic patterns is called hand