The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a drop-and-stick (DS) test method and to assess dynamic postural control in senior elite (SE), junior elite (JE), and junior development (JD) surfers. Nine SE, 22 JE, and 17 JD competitive surfers participated in a single testing session. The athletes completed 5 drop-and-stick trials barefoot from a predetermined box height (0.5 m). The lowest and highest time-to-stabilization (TTS) trials were discarded, and the average of the remaining trials was used for analysis. The SE group demonstrated excellent single-measures repeatability (ICC = .90) for TTS, whereas the JE and JD demonstrated good single-measures repeatability (ICC .82 and .88, respectively). In regard to relative peak landing force (rPLF), SE demonstrated poor single-measures reliability compared with JE and JD groups. Furthermore, TTS for the SE (0.69 ± 0.13 s) group was significantly (P = .04) lower than the JD (0.85 ± 0.25 s). There were no significant (P = .41) differences in the TTS between SE (0.69 ± 0.13 s) and JE (0.75 ± 0.16 s) groups or between the JE and JD groups (P = .09). rPLF for the SE (2.7 ± 0.4 body mass; BM) group was significantly lower than the JE (3.8 ± 1.3 BM) and JD (4.0 ± 1.1 BM), with no significant (P = .63) difference between the JE and JD groups. A possible benchmark approach for practitioners would be to use TTS and rPLF as a qualitative measure of dynamic postural control using a reference scale to discriminate among groups.
Tai T. Tran, Lina Lundgren, Josh Secomb, Oliver R.L. Farley, G. Gregory Haff, Robert U. Newton, Sophia Nimphius, and Jeremy M. Sheppard
Lina E. Lundgren, Tai T. Tran, Sophia Nimphius, Ellen Raymond, Josh L. Secomb, Oliver R.L. Farley, Robert U. Newton, Julie R. Steele, and Jeremy M. Sheppard
To develop and evaluate a multifactorial model based on landing performance to estimate injury risk for surfing athletes.
Five measures were collected from 78 competitive surfing athletes and used to create a model to serve as a screening tool for landing tasks and potential injury risk. In the second part of the study, the model was evaluated using junior surfing athletes (n = 32) with a longitudinal follow-up of their injuries over 26 wk. Two models were compared based on the collected data, and magnitude-based inferences were applied to determine the likelihood of differences between injured and noninjured groups.
The study resulted in a model based on 5 measures—ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion, isometric midthigh-pull lower-body strength, time to stabilization during a drop-and-stick (DS) landing, relative peak force during a DS landing, and frontal-plane DS-landing video analysis—for male and female professional surfers and male and female junior surfers. Evaluation of the model showed that a scaled probability score was more likely to detect injuries in junior surfing athletes and reported a correlation of r = .66, P = .001, with a model of equal variable importance. The injured (n = 7) surfers had a lower probability score (0.18 ± 0.16) than the noninjured group (n = 25, 0.36 ± 0.15), with 98% likelihood, Cohen d = 1.04.
The proposed model seems sensitive and easy to implement and interpret. Further research is recommended to show full validity for potential adaptations for other sports.
Kristof Kipp, Michael T. Kiely, Matthew D. Giordanelli, Philip J. Malloy, and Christopher F. Geiser
.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e72466 20634740 5. Flanagan EP , Ebben WP , Jensen RL . Reliability of the reactive strength index and time to stabilization during depth jumps . J Strength Cond Res . 2008 ; 22 ( 5 ): 1677 – 1682 . PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318182034b 18714215 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318182034b
Paul A. Solberg, Will G. Hopkins, Gøran Paulsen, and Thomas A. Haugen
class only once, and a plausible reason for the smaller effect of going up could be that the lifter needs time to stabilize in the new weight class. Athletes participating in weight-restricted events typically train at a body mass 5% to 10% above their required competition weight class. 30 To “make
Niall Casserly, Ross Neville, Massimiliano Ditroilo, and Adam Grainger
measuring jump height . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2017 ; 12 ( 7 ): 959 – 963 . PubMed ID: 27967279 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2016-0511 10.1123/ijspp.2016-0511 27967279 21. Flanagan EP , Ebben WP , Jensen RL . Reliability of the reactive strength index and time to stabilization during depth jumps
José R. Lillo-Bevia and Jesús G. Pallarés
and Passfield, 5 only PO and cadence values from the 10th to the 70th second of each 75-second steps were analyzed, to allow the ergometer enough time to stabilize the assigned breaking load. During each test, PO (W) and cadence (rev·min −1 ) of Hammer Cycleops were recorded at a frequency of 1 Hz
Jean-Francis Gréhaigne and Paul Godbout
that must be specific and moderate in order not to short circuit the process and the debates. On the other hand, the fact that students can rehearse many tasks during long cycles circumvents monotony and gives students enough time to stabilize new available resources. The elaboration of action plans